health assessment ch. 14 eyes

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health assessment ch. 14 eyes
2013-03-15 21:20:41

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  1. presbyopia, myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism
    presbyopia-glasslike equality that decreases the lens ability to change shape to accommodate for near vision

    myopia-nearsighted light brought to focus in front of retina

    hyperopia-far sighted light focus behind retina

    astigmatism- abnormal curvature of cornea or lens
  2. snellen eye chart
    lines of letters arranged in decreasing size

    leave eye wear on

    ex. 20/30 meansĀ  you can read at 20 feet what the normal eye can see at 30 ft.
  3. confrontation test
    gross measure of peripheral vision

    compares the persons peripheral vision with your own, assuming yours is normal

    2 ft away

    in an older adult this screens for glaucoma
  4. hirshberg test
    corneal light reflex

    assess the parallel alignment of the eye axes by shining a light toward the persons eye, stare straight ahead, check for cornea light, should be exactly the same spot on each eye
  5. cover test
    detects small degrees of deviated alignment by interupting the fusion reflex that normally keeps the two eyes parallel

    cover one eye and examine the other eye, should look normal

    bad results indicate deviation in alignment from eye muscle weakness

    if the eye jumps to fix alignment it was out of line before
  6. phoria
    mild weakness noted only when fusion is blocked
  7. tropia
    more severe-constant malignment of the eyes
  8. diagnostic positions test
    lead the eyes through 6 cardinal positions of gaze will elicit any muscle weakness during movement

    failure indicates eom (extraocular muscle weakness) or dysfunction of cranial nerve innervating it
  9. nystagmus
    occurs with disease of the semicircular canals in the ears, paretic eye muscle, multiple sclerosis, or brain lesions
  10. lid lag
    occurs with hyperthyroidism
  11. exophthalmos
    protruding eyes
  12. enophthalmos
    sunken eyes
  13. scleral icterus
    even yellowing of the sclera extedning up to the cornea indicating jaundice
  14. anisocoria
    when the pupils are 2 diff. sizes
  15. accommodation
    asking the person to focus on a distant object then shift to a near object
  16. media
    anterior chamber, lens, vitreous
  17. ocular fundus
    internal surface of the retina
  18. red reflex
    caused by the reflection of the ophthalmoscope light off the inner retina
  19. scleral crescent
    gray white new moon shape
  20. pigment crescent
    black due to accumulation of pigment in the choroid
  21. strabismus
    squint, crossed eye

    untreated can lead to permanent visual damage
  22. brushfields spots
    usually suggest down syndrome
  23. pseudostrabismus
    epicanthal folds give a false appearance of malalignment
  24. what suggest vision loss
    constant nystagmus, prolonged setting sun sign, marked strabismus, slow lateral movements
  25. absent red reflex
    indicates opacity in the cornea or lens

    occurs with congenital cataracts or retinal disorders
  26. papilledema
    rare in infacts because the fontanels are open and sutures will absorb any increased intracranial pressure if it occurs
  27. 20/25 in older adults
    increased risk for falls and fractures
  28. ectropion
    lower lid dropping away
  29. entropion
    lower lid turning in
  30. pterygium
    opacity on the bulbar conjunctiva, one that grows over the cornea
  31. arcus senilis
    gray white arc or circle around the limbus, due to deposition of lipid material. no affect on vision

    halo effect on outer rim of iris

    seen in atherosclerosis
  32. xanthelasma
    soft raised yellow plaques occurring on the lids at the inner canthus, no significance, high or normal cholesterol
  33. diagnostic sign of glaucoma
    glaucomatous cup
  34. macula
    most sensistive to light, should be examined last
  35. veins
    bigger than arteries
  36. av nicking
    portion of vein on either side of artery is not visible

    seen in advanced ateriosclerosis and HTN
  37. puncta
    drain excess tears into lacrimal canals into nasolacrimal duct, located on medial canthus
  38. lacrimal glands
    produce tears
  39. middle ear
    malleus, incus, stapes
  40. 4 openings of middle ear
    from external canal covered by TM in which handle of malleus imbedded, oval window, round window, eustachian tube
  41. inner ear
    vestibule, cochlea, semicircular canals
  42. otosclerosis
    gradual hardening that causes the footplate of the stapes to become fixed in the oval window impending the transmission of sound and causing progressive deafness
  43. presbycusis
    gradual sensorineural loss caused by nerve degeneration in the inner ear that slowly progressess after the 5th decade
  44. otitis media
    middle ear infection
  45. otorrhea
    discharge from ear

    indicated infected canal, or perforated eardrum
  46. objective vertigo
    feels like rooms spins
  47. subjective vertigo
    feels like they are spinning
  48. kids with hearing loss
    exposed to maternal rubella, maternal ototoxic drugs in utero
  49. darwins nodule
    a painless nodule at the helix, not significant
  50. microtia
    ears smaller than 4 cm
  51. macrotia
    ears larger than 10 cm
  52. pain at the mastoid process may indicate what?
    mastoiditis or enlarged posterior auricular node
  53. what is the most common cause of conductive hearing loss?
    impacted cerumen
  54. whispered voice test
    30-60 cm exhale and whisper 3 random numbers and letters, correct if repeat 3 of the 6
  55. atresia
    absence or closure of the ear canal
  56. otalgia
    ear pain
  57. 3 land marks of the TM
    1) annulus

    2) malleus

    3)light reflex
  58. rinne test
    tests for conduction loss
  59. weber test
    detect conduction or sensorineural loss
  60. structures of the nose
    • turbinates
    • -inferior
    • -middle
    • -superior
  61. sinuses
    direct palpation
  62. epistaxis
    • spontaneous or traumatic rupture of small blood vessels
    • chronic sinusitis
    • malignancy within sinuses
    • nose picking
    • cocaine abuse
  63. absence of sniff indicates what?
  64. light skinned people
    circumoral pallor occurs with shock and anemia, cyanosis with hypoxemia and chilling, cherry red lips from carbon monoxide poisoning, acidosis from aspirin poisoning or ketoacidosis
  65. cheilitis
    cracking at the corners
  66. malocclusion
    poor biting relationship
  67. enlarged tongues
    mental retardation, hypothyroidism, acromegaly,
  68. small tongues
  69. addisons disease
    dappled brown patches, chronic adrenal insufficiency
  70. koplik spots
    early prodromal sign of measles
  71. leukoedema
    benign milky bluish white opaque area more commin in blacks and indians
  72. buccal mucosa-stensons duct
    opening of the parotid salivary gland
  73. stages of tonsilitis
    • 1+ visible
    • 2+halfway between tonsillar pillars and uvula
    • 3+touching the uvula
    • 4+touching each other