PSY 360 Exam 2
Card Set Information
PSY 360 Exam 2
Evolutionary and Cultural
2 perspectives of similarities and differences
Evolutionary perspective of similarities and differences emphasises human ___.
Cultural perspective of similarities and differences emphasises human ___.
evolutionary process by which nature selects traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
study of the evolution of behavior using the principles of natural selection
Assumption of Evolutionary Psychology
___ of ___ ___, states that humans are gene-producing machines with the basic motivation of propetuating our genetic pool for the purpose of survival
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
rules for accepted and expected behavior in social situations
buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define themselves as male or female
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
set of behavioral expectations or norms for males and females
a change in behavior or beliefs as a result of real or imagined group pressure
In a ___ society, conformity is seen as more
In a ___ society, conformity is seen as a more
conformity that involves publically acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing
acting in accord with direct order
conformity that involves both acting AND believing in accordance with social order
an accomplice of the experimentor
Line matching experiment
electric shock study on obedience
- Emotional Distance
- Legitemacy of Authority
- Institutional Authority
What breeds obedience/compliance? (3)
Fundamental Error of Attribution
what is causing someone to behave in a certain way
when we look at others, we say that issues arrise from their ___
when we look at ourselves, they arrise from our ___
conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations (often to gain acceptance).
conformity occuring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people (often the media)
a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom
___ arises when someone threatens our freedom of action
___ is evident in EVERYDAY life.
the process by which a message induces changes in beliefs, attitudes, or behavior
Central (Cognitive) Route
Peripheral (Superficial) Route
2 Routes of Persuasion
Central (Cognitive) Route of Persuasion
occurs when people who are interested focus arguments and respond with favorable results
Peripheral (Superficial) Route of Persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues (speaker's attractiveness)
Media communicates through the ___ route.
Person to Person
___ ___ ___ is the BEST form of communication.
If material is super
, the best form of communication is ___.
Order of message (first/last) is the most important unless ___ is involved.
challenging beliefs of the opposite people
exposing people to attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will resist.
when a group of two or more people who for longer than a few moments interact and influence one another
the perception that people will perform better when other people are watching them
the concern for how others are evaluating us
tendency for people to exert less effort when they pull their efforts towards a common goal than when they are individually accountable
1. Task is challenging for all members
2. Task is appealing to all members
3. All members are actively involved
Social loafing is not as prominent if the task is ___ and ___ for all members and if all members are ___ ___.
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
conformity occuring amongst groups when people accept evidence about reality from other people (medial)
when groups conform based on their desires to fulfill others' expectations - often to gain acceptance
Directive leadership style where the responsibility is to organize work, set standards, and focus on goal attainment
Democrative leadership style where the reponsibility is to build teamwork, mediate conflict, and be suppportive.
4. Ability to Communicate
5. Ability to Inspire
Effective leaders are ___, ___, ___, and have the ability to ___ and ___.
a mode of thinking that persons engage in when agreement becomes so dominent in a cohesive in-group, that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternate courses of action
- stick to their position
- have self-confidence
- deflect from the majority
Minorities can make a big impact when . . . (3)
process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
___ have more influence on social relationships.
#12) ___ influence is based on one's desire to be ___
they are given alternatives
#19) Fear arousing messages are most effective if . . .
when you lose your sense of identity (self-awareness)
*most common in "mob" settings*
Incidents of group think in American history
when a group become divided and there's no middle ground