Cell Bio 2 Exam 2 L20: Evolution

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  1. variation
    many natural variations are produced by phenotype; those that are beneficial are actively preserved while the harmful ones die out
  2. survival of the fittest
    the individual organism's struggle for survival and its ability to reproduce
  3. time
    process of selection operates over geological time spand, very small gains or very small losses in any one generation may determine survival of that phenotype over long time-scales
  4. phenotype
    a physical characteristic of an organism and is a product of both the genetic composition of the individual and its environment
  5. genotype
    underlying genetic changes at the DNA level that together with environmental factors cause the phenotype
  6. Defects turned into a mutation by DNA replication, mutation can be passed along via ____ in _____
    by mitosis in the germ line cell of multi cellular organisms or in a single-cell organism
  7. ____ enhances the rate at which mutations are mixed and transferred to offspring
    sexual reproduction
  8. Types of mutations - small scale (more common over short time scales)
    • point mutations
    • insertions
    • deletions
  9. types of mutations - large scale
    • duplications 
    • deletions
    • insertions
    • translocations
    • inversions
    • loss of allele
  10. genome wide association studies
    • comparing the genomes of individuals either within species or comparisons between species
    •       *discovery of conditional deletions of regulatory sequences between Human and Chimpanzees
    •       *comparisons of genomic modifications associated with birth defects and disease, understanding modifications that occur in cancerous cells
  11. synthetic biology
    • an effort to create novel proteins and life forms to perform needed tasks
    • this field involves engineering both coding and noncoding sequences and high throughput methods of assessing performance and carrying out artifical selection
  12. adaptive melanism
    coloration and patterning are easily adapted and important in determining survival and reproductive success
  13. If you have red hair you probably have...
    a mutated MC1R (MC1R is a GPCR coupled to cAMP production)
  14. stickleback
    • saltwater and freshwater versions
    • saltwater has pelvic spine to prevent predation by fish
    • freshwater lost pelvic spines to avoid becoming prey of dragonflies
    • stickleback retain all ability to have a spine, crossing no spine with spine can result in spine
    • PitX1 responsible for formation of spine - silent in the pelvis of freshwater (although present other places)
Card Set:
Cell Bio 2 Exam 2 L20: Evolution
2013-03-16 05:47:15
BIOE 1071 Cell Bio


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