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2013-03-16 09:17:37
HON 122

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  1. I.                   Marx and Marxism
    a.      Beginning of Marxism: publication of The Communist Manifesto, by Marx and Freidrich Engels
  2. History
    •                                                               i.      Marx born in middle-class family in Germany from rabbis; father= Protestant lawyer
    •                                                             ii.      University of Bonnà University of Berlin due to carelessness        
    • 1.      UBerlin: encountered ideas of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
  3. History of Marx cont.
    •                                                               i.      Ph.D in philosophy and planned to teachà fail due to atheismà career in journalismà editor of liberal bourgeois newspaper in Cologne
    • 1.      After newspaper suppressed because of his radical viewsà Paris where he met Engels
  4. History of Engels
    •                                                               i.      Son of wealthy German cotton manufacture who worked in father’s factories
    •                                                             ii.      Knowledge of wage slavery of the British working class, detailed in The Conditions of the Working Class in England, a damning indictment of industrial life written in 1844.
    •                                                           iii.      Engels would contribute his knowledge of actual working conditions as well as monetary assistance to the financially strapped Marx
  5. Marx and Engels
    •                                                               i.      1847: joined German socialist revolutionaries known as Communist League
    •                                                             ii.      Both were enthusiastic advocates of the radical working-class movement and agreed to draft a statement fo their ideas for the leagueà Communist Manifesto
  6. Communist Manifesto appearance
    • 1.      Appeared on eve of revolutions of 1848; very radical in language
    • a.      Closing lines: WORKING MEN OF ALL COUNTRIES, UNITE!—were to arouse the working classes to action, but were unnoticed
    • 2.      Work was one of most influential political treatises in modern European history
  7.                                                               i.      Engles said Marx’s ideas were partly a synthesis of French and German thought 
    French contribution
    • 1.      French gave Marx ample documentation for his assertion that  a revolution could restructure society
    • a.      Also provided him with examples of socialism
  8.                                                               i.      Engles said Marx’s ideas were partly a synthesis of French and German thought 
    German contribution
    • 1.      Germans, like Hegel, gave idea of dialectic: everything evolves, and all change in history is result of conflicts between antagonistic elements
    • a.      Marx was impressed by Hegel, but disagreed with his belief that history is determined by ideas manifesting themosevesl in historical forces
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Marx said course of history is determined by material forces
  9. a.      Ideas of the Communist Manifesto (1)
    •                                                               i.      Throughout history, oppressed and oppressor opposed each other
    • 1.      In earlier struggles, the feudal classes of the Middle Ages were forced to accede to the emerging middle class/ bourgeoisie
    • a.      As the bourgeoisie took control, its ideas became the dominant views of the era, and government became its instrument
  10. a.      Ideas of the Communist Manifesto (2)
                                                                  i.      Marx and Engles declared the government of the state reflected/ defended the interests of the industrial middle class and its allies
  11. a.      Ideas of the Communist Manifesto (3)
    •                                                               i.      Although bourgeois society emerged victorious out of the ruins of feudalism, Marx and Engles insisted that it had not triumphed completely
    • 1.      Once again, the members of the bourgeoisie were antagonists in an emerging class struggle, but they faced the proletariat, or the industrial working class
  12. a.      Ideas of the Communist Manifesto (3b): Fierce Struggle
    a.      Fierce struggle, but Marx and Engles predicted the workers would overthrow their bourgeoisie mastersà proletarioat would form a dictatorship to reorganize the means of productionà classless society and the state (instrument of the bourgeoisie) would wither away since it no longer represented the interests of a particular classà no more class strugglesà progress in science, tech, and industryà greater wealth for all
  13. Revolution's failure
    • a.      After revolution’s failure, Marx went to London, where he spent the rest of his life
    •                                                               i.      Continued writing on political economy, especially his famous work, Das Kapital, only one volume completed and Engels edited the remaining novels
    • b.      One of the reasons Das Kapital wasn’t complete was Marx’s preoccupation with organizing the working-class movement
  14. In The Communist Manifesto...
    •                                                               i.      In The Communist Manifesto, Marx defined communists as “most advanced and resolute section of the working-class parties of every country”
    •                                                             ii.      Marx’s role was participating in the activities of the International Working Men’s Association
  15.                                                               i.      International Working Men’s Association
    • 1.      Formed in 1864 by British and French trade unionsists, this “First International” served as an umbrella organization for working-class interests
    • a.      Marx was the dominant personality on the organization’s General Council and dvoted much time to its activities
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Internal dissension within the ranks soon damaged the organization, and it failed in 1872