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What is sociology?
The study of human behavior as it is affected by social interaction taking place w/in the context of groups, organization, societies, and the planet.
What is social interaction?
- everyday events in which people are involved
- -take one another into account
- -consciously and unconsciously attach meaning into the situation
- -interpret what others are saying and doing, and then respond accordingly
what is the system to social interaction?
rules (often unspoken) guide the way interpret the situation and behave toward one another
The distinctiveness of the sociological perspective lies with its focus on...
Sociology emerged as a discipline in reaction to what event?
The industrial revolution
What sociologist said the thirst for profit chases the bourgeoisie over the whole surface of the globe?
What is sociological imagination?
is a quality of mind that allows people to see how larger social forces, especially their place in history and the ways in which society is organized, shape their life stories or biographies.
What are troubles?
personal needs, problems, difficulties that can be explained in terms of individual shortcomings related to motivation, attitude, ability, character or judgement. The resolution of trouble, if it can be resolved, lies in changing the individual in some way.
What are issues?
matters that can be explained only by factors outside an individuals control and immediate environment.
What particular social fact did Durkheim write about?
solidarity, the ties that bind people to one another (i.e.,education, deviance, the division of labor, and suicide)
What are the 4 types of problematic social ties identified by Durkheim?
egoistic, altruistic, autonomic and fatalistic
What are social facts, as described by Durkheim?
feelings and way of behaving"that possesses the remarkable property of existing outside the consciousness of the individual."Social facts for the most part do not originate with the people experiencing them.
what is a society?
a group of interacting people who share, perpetuate, and create culture.
The three sociological perspectives
- structural functionalism - life is with people
- conflict theory- life is against people
- symbolic interactionism - life may be with or against people, but it is not a system. It is an ongoing process and it is made by individuals exposure to one another.
What are the fundamental traits of the American culture?
achieved or ascribed - a physical trait that is biological in origin and cant be changed
Culture - is the way of life of a people, includes the human-created strategies for adjusting to the environment and to those creatures that are a part of that environment
what are situational factors?
- are outside of one's immediate control -
what are dispositional factors?
- action or event that changes you -
- domestic violence
What is deviance?
any physical appearance that is socially challenged or condemned because it departs from the norms and expectations of a group.
What is the industrial revolution?
changes in manufacturing, agriculture, transportation that transformed every aspect of society
What is mechanical solidarity?
characteristic of pre-industrial societies-characterizes a social order based on a common conscience, or uniform thinking or behaving- a person's first duty is to "resemble everyone else", that is not to have anything personal about ones core beliefs and actions
what is organic solidarity?
a complex division of labor increases differences among people, in turn leading to a decrease in common conscience - people relate to one another in terms of their specialized roles in the division of labor. we ignore personal differences and treat individuals who perform the same tasks as interchangeable
What is social interaction?
a situation in which 2 people communicate and respond through language and symbolic gestures to affect one another's behavior and thinking
What is division of labor?
work that is broken down into specialized tasks, each performed by a different set of workers specifically trained to do that task.
What is individualism-collectivism?
most cultures have a mixture of individualistic and collectivistic traits, but many lean one way or another. Most social scientists agree that the US can be considered the most individualistic culture on Earth
What is deviance?
any behavior or physical appearance that is socially challenged and or condemned and because it departs from the norms and expectations of a group
what are socially challenged behavior during the cultural revolution(that are not challenged today in China)
- withdrawing money from a bank
- making a profit
- occupying a position of authority
- having an academic interest
- wearing glasses
- speaking a foreign language
- owning a camera or radio
- traveling abroad
- being a scientist, teacher, athlete, performer
- artist, business owner
- having relatives who live outside of China
What is the cultural revolution?
a struggle for power within the Chinese Communist Party that resulted in dramatic social, political, and economic chaos. The cultural revolution was an attempt by Mao Zedong to eliminate anyone in the communist party and masses who opposed him
Mao Zedong encourage the youth of the country who belonged to the Red Guards to do what?
reject the old ideas, old culture, old customs, old habits of the exploiting classes
What was the "great leap forward'"
a plan to transform China from a country of poverty to a land of agricultural abundance in five short years