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What are the funcitons of the Respiratory system?
- 1. Provides for gas exchange
- -brings O2 into body
- -excretes CO2 from body
- 2. helps regulate blood pH
- 3. Contains smell receptors
- 4. Filters incoming air
- 5. Produces vocal sounds
- 6. Excretes water and heat
What are the four processes carried out by the respiratory system?
- 1. Pulmonary ventalation: moving air into and out of the lungs
- 2. External respiration: echange of gases at the alveoli of hte lungs
- 3. Transport of repiratory gases to the tissues
- 4. Internal respiration: exchange of gases between blood and tissue
What structures are included in the upper repiratory system?
- paranasal sinuses
What structure separate the upper and lower respiratory system?
the larnyx or voice box
What structures make up the lower respiratory system?
- made up of hyaline cartilage - gives flexibility
- air enters through the external nares (nostrills)
- nose hairs act as a filter for all of the crap you might breath in.
In the nose, _____-_____ bones make up the nasal conchae called turbinates, which are lined by a ________ ______.
scroll-like, mucous membrane
Air is moisturized, warmed, and filtered by turgulences inside nasal passages
Increases surface area and mixing of air enhances olfaction
- cavities within crainial and facial bones that are lined with a mucous membrane
- These spaces lighten the weight of the head
- the serve as chambers that resonate sound as we speak or sing.
- They may trap microorganisms and fluid and we find areselves with a nasty sinus infecition.
Pharynx or throat
- a hollow tube that starts at the posterior part of the internal nares and decendds to the opening of the larynx.
- A passageway for air and food,
- a resonating chamber for sound
- houses the tonsils.
The Pharynx devides into three zones:
- Nasopharynx: Lies behind the intrnal nares and has a purely respiratory funciton
- -Eustachian tubes (autitory tubes)
- -Houses the pharyngeal tonsils
- Oropharynx: lies behind the mouth with both reparatory and digestive functions
- -houses the palatine tonsils (removed in a tonsillectomy) and the lingual tonsil
- Laryngopharynx: Lies inferior to the oropharynx and opens into the larynx and esophagus
- -Respiratory and digestive functions.
Larynx or voice box
- connects the laryngopharynx with the trechea
- sits in the midline of the neck anterior to the esophagus and superior to the trechea
- The opening is called the glottis-
- -folds of tissue
- -The vocal chords
- -openings between the vocal chords
- Sound: producesd by vigration as air passes the vocal chords
- -Volume controlled by pressure
- -Pitch caused by tension on vocal folds
- -Men have lower voices because of the effects of androgens during puberty thickening and elongating vocal folds
What are the cartilage peices of the larynx?
- single cartilage
- Paired cartilage
- -Corniclutate and Cuniform
- Adams apple
- Forms the anterior surface of the larynx
- Leaf shaped piece of hyaline cartilage that closes over the larynx when food or liquid are swallowed
- allows gases such as oxygen through the larynx into the trachea
a ring of hyaline catilage that forms the inferior portion of the larynx
Influence changes in position and tension of the vocal folds
Corniculate and Cuneiform
suport the vocal folds and the epiglottis
The _____ and _____ cartilages serve as landmarks for an emergency airway. A __________ tube is inserted between these two landmarks
thyroid, cricoid, tracheostomy
a tracheotomy is the procedure of cutting (--tomy) the trachea.
a trecheostomy maens to form a mouth or opening (stomy) in the trecea. this is semi-permanent or permanent procedure used for patients with long-term needs such as or cancer patients.
Trachea or windpipe
- is a semi-rigid passageway for air
- about 12 cm long
- surrounded by incomplete cartilage rings resembling the letter C, giving it support and prventing collapse of he trachea, especially during inhalation
- Anterior to the esophagus ( posterior portion is shared with esophagus)
- The trachea divides into the right and left bronchi
- resemble an inverted tree, branching into divisions of secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, and eventrually into tiny bronchioles and terminal bronchioles
True or False
The right primary bronchus extgends more vertically, is wider, and shorter than the left.
Because of this, an aspirated object is more likely to lodge in the right bronchus than the left
The carina is an internal ridge where the ______ divides into right and left ______.
The carina is used as a landmark when performing a bronchoscopy or visual examination of the bronchi
the carina is a very sensitive area for triggering the cough reflex
- The right and left lungs are slightly different
- right lung contains 3 lobes while the left contains 2. this is because the heart rest on the medial portion of the left lung
- see. obj 2 p. 824
Respiratory system :
Bronchi and Lungs
- One primary bronchus for each lung (right and left)
- On secondary bronchus for each lobe of the lung
- -R lung:3 lobes
- -L lung: 2 lobes
- Bronchi enter at hilus along with blood vessels
- superior part of lung is the apex
- -extends above clavicle
- Inferior part of lung is the base
- -rests on diaphragm
Bronchioles and Alveoli
- Bronchi branch and divide to form bronchioles
- Bronchioles end in stuctures that resemble grape clusters ( alveoli)
- Aveoli are the site of gas exchange in the lung
True or false
It is estimated that the lungs contain 300 million alveoli, giving a surgace area about the size of a raquetball court for gas exchange.
- Like other viscera, lungs are covered with a double-walled membrane
- The visceral pleura adheres to the lung
- The parietal pleura adheres to the chest wall
- There is a thin layer of pleural fluid between these in the pleural cavity
- Tight contact between these membranes (with liquid seal and lubrication) is critical for lung function.
- a lage dome shaped muscle that frorms the floor of the throacic cavity
- most important muscle that powers breathing
- contraction enlarges the thoracic cavity enabling inhalation
- responsible for 75% of air that enters the lungs during normal quiet breathing
- make up the intermediate layer of the intercostal space.
- these muscles help decrease the size of the thoracic cavity during forced exhalation
- originates from spial cord at levels C3, C4,and C5
- -mnemonic: "C3,4,5 keep the diaphragm alive
- Distributes over the superior serface of eh diaphragm
- when stimulated, causes contraction of the diaphragm muscle
Sympathetic: Pulmonary plexus
- lung receives both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation
- sympathetic (norepinephrine): causes dialation of broncial smooth muscle
- Cells and nerves:
- -Preganglionic cells bodies in intermediate horn of T1-T4 spinal cord
- -Post ganglionic cell bodies in sympathetic chain ganglia
- -Nerves form pulmonary plexus in hilus of lung
- Parasympathetic inneration via vagus nerve (CN X)
- Acetylcholine is neurotransmitter released
- Causes mucus secretionand contricitonof bronchial smooth muscle.
Review obj. 2 alot p. 819-927