Card Set Information
What is a notarium?
Toracic vertebrae fuse where bones supporting wings are attached
What is a synsacrum?
Fused thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae fused to the pelvis that aids in flight
What is a pygostyle?
fused caudal vertebrae that are fused that support tail feathers
What type of animals have 2 sets of ribs?
What happens to the caudal part of the ventral ribs?
They're fused to create a hemal arch
What are the 2 parts of the mammalian ribs?
Costal rib and sternal rib.
What is the role of the capitulum and tuberculum of the ribs?
The capitulum articulates between vertebrate and the tuberculum articulates with the transverse process
What is the role of the uncinate processes in bird ribs?
They driect caudal to adjacent rib to enhance rib stability
Do fish have a sternum?
No, only tetrapods have sternums
What is the role of the sternum?
It secures the ventral tips of the ribs to make a complete rib cage shape that helps in ventilation and protetion
What are the parts of a sternum called?
Sternebrae, the most cranial one is the manubirum, and most caudal is the xiphoid process
How are bird sternums different from mammalian ones?
It is 1 large bone that attach to massive flight muscles. It has a prominent keel/carina which increase surface area for muscles to attach
Do fish have a clavicle?
Do fish have a scapula?
No, it's fused to the coracoid and is called a coracoscapula
Where is the pectoral and pelvic girdle in fish?
Pectroral girdle is at the pectoral fin, and the pelvic girdle is with the pelvic fin
What are ischiopubic plates in fish?
They're 2 cartilaginous or bony plates in the pelvic girdle. May not be attached to the axial skeleton and are not weight bearing
What are the three parts of a mammalian pelvic girdle?
Ilium, pubis, and ischium
What is the socket in the pelvic girdle of mammals called?
on what part of the pelvic girdle are sacral vertebrae attached to?
What parts of the pelvic girdle fuse together at the midline? Why birds lack this?
pubis and ischium; to allow passage of eggs
What makes up a fish fin?
A row of basal bones that support smaller radial bones. Cartilagionous fin rays extend from the radials
What are 3 specialization types of metacarpus and digits? (aka locomotion types)
Plantigrade (metatarsals flat on ground, i.e. humans), digitigrade (walking on toes with heel/wrist raised, i.e. dogs), unguligrade (walking on nails, i.e. horse)
What is the tibiotarsus in birds?
It is a bone between the femur and the tarsometatarsus that is made of the tibia fused with proximal bones of the tarsus
What is the tarsometatarsus?
It is a compound bone between the tibia and digits, that is made of the fusion of the tarsal and metatarsal bones
What is cartilage made of?
Extracellular matrix, water, and chondrocytes
Does cartilage have blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, or nerves?
Chondroblasts were formed from what type of cell?
What is the difference between chondroblasts and chondrocytes?
Chondroblasts are growing or injured cartilage, produce extracellular matrix. Chrondrocysters are mature, less active cells. They maintain extracellular matrix. Reside in lacunae.
What is perichondrium?
a chondrogenic layer made of small blood vessels and fibrous layer
What is the difference between interstitial and appositional growth?
Appositional growth happens at the edge of the cartilage mass, and interstitial growth happens in the middle of the cartilege.
What type of cartiledge growth increases the size of the bone most?
What characterizes elastic cartilage?I
t's yellowish, has dense branching elastic fibers, elastin (to maintain shape), and a perichondrium
Where is hyaline cartilage usually found?
Articulating surfaces of bones, tracheal ring, nose, larynx, model (temporary) skeleton in the embryo
All cells within tissues are separated and interlinked by?
Extracellular matrix secreted by those cells
What type of bone is this?
What is the definition of a tissue?
Cell clusters that perform similar functions
Majority of the dry weight of cartiladge is made of?
What are proteoglycans?
What are 3 types of cartilage? What distinguishes them?
Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage; type of collagen fibers presents and structure of the extracellular matrix
What characterizes fibrocartilage?
TypeI collagen fibrils, less proteoglycan than hyaline, NO PERCHONDRIUM
What is the purpose of corticol bone?
Biomechanical, supportive, protective
Where is fibrocartilage found?
Transitions between fibrous connective tissue and stiffer tissues, tendons and ligaments
What are the two components of fibrocartilage?
Annulus fibrosus and the nucleous pulposus
How does cartilage get nutrients?
Where is trabecular bone usually found?
Inner parts of short bones and ends of long bones
What is the function of trabecular bones?
Mineral homeostasis and support
What is bone marrow?
Network of blood vessels and sinusoids. Where blood cells mature
What is bone marrow stroma made of?
Reticular cells, macrophages, adipocytes, and osteogenic cells
What is the differences between red and yellow marrow?
Red marrow is hematopoeitically active, found in many bones.Yellow marrow contains many adipocytes and makes up most of the disphysis of long bones
What is the difference between osteoblasts and osteoclasts?
Osteoblasts build bone, and osteoclasts break it down
How are osteoclasts and osteoblasts formed?
Osteoclasts are from monocytes from the bone marrow.Osteoblasts are formed from osteoprognitor and diffentiate into osteocytes as they get embedded into the bone
What are these? (bone)
Osteoblasts, osteoid, mineralized bone (from top to bottom)
What is this? (bone)
Cellular network in bones
What is an osteoid?
Un-mineralized bone matrix, participate in mineralization. Secreted by osteoblasts
How do the cells in bones communicate?
Via gap junctional channels
What is the purpose of the spiky morpholog of osteocytes?
Mechanical adaptation as mechanosensors.
What make osteoblast cells special?
They're secretory cells with a large nucleus, enlarged golgi, extensive ER, and enriched with alkaline phosphatase
What are bone lining cells?
Flat, elongated, largely quiescent, few organelles, communicate with osteocytes
What are the steps in osteoclast formation?
Hematopoietic stem cell > monocyte cells > osteoclast precursors > interacts with osteoblast/stromal cell > mononuclear osteoclast > fuse with each other to make an multicellular osteoclast
What is the organic matter in bone made of?
Collagen type I, other proteins, proteogylcans, glycoproteins
What are the steps in bone breakdown?
The mineral in bone is made of?
What are the two bone tissue types and how are they different?
Woven bone (disorganized) collagen/osteocyters distributed randomly, more mineralized. Usually temporary. Lamellar bone is organized, formed slowly, highly organized, stronger
What is this?
What are the two processes that turn mesenchymel cells into bone?
Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
What is intramembranous ossification?
The direct transformation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. Woven bone is replaced with lamellar bone
Where does endochondral ossification happen?
Axial skeleton with some exceptions, appendicular skeleton
what is and how does endochondral ossification work?
It is the replacing of a hyalin cart. model by ossicious tissue. In peri. (????)