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  1. What is a notarium?
    Toracic vertebrae fuse where bones supporting wings are attached
  2. What is a synsacrum?
    Fused thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae fused to the pelvis that aids in flight
  3. What is a pygostyle?
    fused caudal vertebrae that are fused that support tail feathers
  4. What type of animals have 2 sets of ribs?
  5. What happens to the caudal part of the ventral ribs?
    They're fused to create a hemal arch
  6. What are the 2 parts of the mammalian ribs?
    Costal rib and sternal rib.
  7. What is the role of the capitulum and tuberculum of the ribs?
    The capitulum articulates between vertebrate and the tuberculum articulates with the transverse process
  8. What is the role of the uncinate processes in bird ribs?
    They driect caudal to adjacent rib to enhance rib stability
  9. Do fish have a sternum?
    No, only tetrapods have sternums
  10. What is the role of the sternum?
    It secures the ventral tips of the ribs to make a complete rib cage shape that helps in ventilation and protetion
  11. What are the parts of a sternum called?
    Sternebrae, the most cranial one is the manubirum, and most caudal is the xiphoid process
  12. How are bird sternums different from mammalian ones?
    It is 1 large bone that attach to massive flight muscles. It has a prominent keel/carina which increase surface area for muscles to attach
  13. Do fish have a clavicle?
  14. Do fish have a scapula?
    No, it's fused to the coracoid and is called a coracoscapula
  15. Where is the pectoral and pelvic girdle in fish?
    Pectroral girdle is at the pectoral fin, and the pelvic girdle is with the pelvic fin
  16. What are ischiopubic plates in fish?
    They're 2 cartilaginous or bony plates in the pelvic girdle. May not be attached to the axial skeleton and are not weight bearing
  17. What are the three parts of a mammalian pelvic girdle?
    Ilium, pubis, and ischium
  18. What is the socket in the pelvic girdle of mammals called?
  19. on what part of the pelvic girdle are sacral vertebrae attached to?
  20. What parts of the pelvic girdle fuse together at the midline? Why birds lack this?
    pubis and ischium; to allow passage of eggs
  21. What makes up a fish fin?
    A row of basal bones that support smaller radial bones. Cartilagionous fin rays extend from the radials
  22. What are 3 specialization types of metacarpus and digits? (aka locomotion types)
    Plantigrade (metatarsals flat on ground, i.e. humans), digitigrade (walking on toes with heel/wrist raised, i.e. dogs), unguligrade (walking on nails, i.e. horse)
  23. What is the tibiotarsus in birds?
    It is a bone between the femur and the tarsometatarsus that is made of the tibia fused with proximal bones of the tarsus
  24. What is the tarsometatarsus?
    It is a compound bone between the tibia and digits, that is made of the fusion of the tarsal and metatarsal bones
  25. What is cartilage made of?
    Extracellular matrix, water, and chondrocytes
  26. Does cartilage have blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, or nerves?
  27. Chondroblasts were formed from what type of cell?
    Mesenchymal cells
  28. What is the difference between chondroblasts and chondrocytes?
    Chondroblasts are growing or injured cartilage, produce extracellular matrix. Chrondrocysters are mature, less active cells. They maintain extracellular matrix. Reside in lacunae.
  29. What is perichondrium?
    a chondrogenic layer made of small blood vessels and fibrous layer
  30. What is the difference between interstitial and appositional growth?
    Appositional growth happens at the edge of the cartilage mass, and interstitial growth happens in the middle of the cartilege.
  31. What type of cartiledge growth increases the size of the bone most?
  32. What characterizes elastic cartilage?I
    t's yellowish, has dense branching elastic fibers, elastin (to maintain shape), and a perichondrium
  33. Where is hyaline cartilage usually found?
    Articulating surfaces of bones, tracheal ring, nose, larynx, model (temporary) skeleton in the embryo
  34. All cells within tissues are separated and interlinked by?
    Extracellular matrix secreted by those cells
  35. What type of bone is this?Image Upload 1
    corticol bone
  36. What is the definition of a tissue?
    Cell clusters that perform similar functions
  37. Majority of the dry weight of cartiladge is made of?
    Collagen, proteoglycans
  38. What are proteoglycans?
  39. What are 3 types of cartilage? What distinguishes them?
    Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage; type of collagen fibers presents and structure of the extracellular matrix
  40. What characterizes fibrocartilage?
    TypeI collagen fibrils, less proteoglycan than hyaline, NO PERCHONDRIUM
  41. What is the purpose of corticol bone?
    Biomechanical, supportive, protective
  42. Where is fibrocartilage found?
    Transitions between fibrous connective tissue and stiffer tissues, tendons and ligaments
  43. What are the two components of fibrocartilage?
    Annulus fibrosus and the nucleous pulposus
  44. How does cartilage get nutrients?
    From perichondrium
  45. Where is trabecular bone usually found?
    Inner parts of short bones and ends of long bones
  46. What is the function of trabecular bones?
    Mineral homeostasis and support
  47. What is bone marrow?
    Network of blood vessels and sinusoids. Where blood cells mature
  48. What is bone marrow stroma made of?
    Reticular cells, macrophages, adipocytes, and osteogenic cells
  49. What is the differences between red and yellow marrow?
    Red marrow is hematopoeitically active, found in many bones.Yellow marrow contains many adipocytes and makes up most of the disphysis of long bones
  50. What is the difference between osteoblasts and osteoclasts?
    Osteoblasts build bone, and osteoclasts break it down
  51. How are osteoclasts and osteoblasts formed?
    Osteoclasts are from monocytes from the bone marrow.Osteoblasts are formed from osteoprognitor and diffentiate into osteocytes as they get embedded into the bone
  52. What are these? (bone)
    Image Upload 2
    Osteoblasts, osteoid, mineralized bone (from top to bottom)
  53. What is this? (bone) Image Upload 3
    Cellular network in bones
  54. What is an osteoid?
    Un-mineralized bone matrix, participate in mineralization. Secreted by osteoblasts
  55. How do the cells in bones communicate?
    Via gap junctional channels
  56. What is the purpose of the spiky morpholog of osteocytes?
    Mechanical adaptation as mechanosensors.
  57. What make osteoblast cells special?
    They're secretory cells with a large nucleus, enlarged golgi, extensive ER, and enriched with alkaline phosphatase
  58. What are bone lining cells?
    Flat, elongated, largely quiescent, few organelles, communicate with osteocytes
  59. What are the steps in osteoclast formation?
    Hematopoietic stem cell > monocyte cells > osteoclast precursors > interacts with osteoblast/stromal cell > mononuclear osteoclast > fuse with each other to make an multicellular osteoclast
  60. What is the organic matter in bone made of?
    Collagen type I, other proteins, proteogylcans, glycoproteins
  61. What are the steps in bone breakdown?
  62. The mineral in bone is made of?
  63. What are the two bone tissue types and how are they different?
    Woven bone (disorganized) collagen/osteocyters distributed randomly, more mineralized. Usually temporary. Lamellar bone is organized, formed slowly, highly organized, stronger
  64. What is this? Image Upload 4
    Intramembranous ossification
  65. What are the two processes that turn mesenchymel cells into bone?
    Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
  66. What is intramembranous ossification?
    The direct transformation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. Woven bone is replaced with lamellar bone
  67. Where does endochondral ossification happen?
    Axial skeleton with some exceptions, appendicular skeleton
  68. what is and how does endochondral ossification work?
    It is the replacing of a hyalin cart. model by ossicious tissue. In peri. (????)
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2013-03-17 03:18:00

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