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The respritory tract is divided into two zones:
- conducting zone: the part of the the respiratory system that brings air into the lungs
- respiratory zone: part of the respiratory system where gas exchange takes place
The conduction zone consists of
- all the structures that bring air to the alveoli: Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchiols and terminal bronchiols
- its function is to warm, moisten and conduct air to the lungs.
The respiratory zone consists of
- Respiratory bronchiols , alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.
- This is where gas exchange takes place
True or false
The upper respiratory tract is fullof endogenous (normal) flora, while the lower respiratory tract should be sterile.
sputum, and abnormal, thick, mucus (spit mised with respiratory secretions) is often cultured if a physician suspects pneumonia
as the patient caughs up the sputum it mixes with the nomal microorganisms of he upper respiratory tract. The microbiologist must siscern betweeen the normal flora and any harmful pathogens.
Air molecule Itinerary
- 1. outside world
- 2. Mothe or nose
- 3. Pharynx
- 4. Larynx
- 5. Trachea
- 6. Left or right primary bronchus
- 7. Secondary bronchus
- 8. Tertiary bonchus
- 9. Bronchiole
- 10. Terminal bronchiole
- 11. Respiratory bronchiole
- 12. Alveoli
- 13. Bloodstream
True or False
Tissue vary throughout the respiratory tract to meet specific funcitons.
Most of the conducting portion of the repiratory tract is lined with ____________ ________ ______ cells, also called the respiratory epithelium.
pseudostratified columnar ciliated
This epithelium also contains oblet cells which produce mucus
The mucus and the cilia form the mucocullary escalator which transports foreign particles out of the respiratory tract.
__________ muscle lines the bronchi and bronchioles. This is improtant to control the ________ of the airway. When your exercising and gasping for air, the _________ nervous system stimulates the bronchi and bronchioles to ______, allowing the passage of more air to the lungs.
Smooth, diameter, sympathetic, dilate
after strenuous workout, the airway constricts under parasympathetic stimulaton
Inflammatory conditions such as asthma also cause constriciton of the airways, trapping air within the lungs.
True or False
As we move deeper into the respiratory zone the epithelium changes
- alveoli are lined with two types of epithelium
- -Type I alveolar cells
- -TyepeII alveolar cells
Type I alveolar cells
- simple squamous epithelium
- these cells are the site of gas excghange
- The most numerous cell lining the alveoli
- The capillaries carring red blood cells are also lined with a single layer of squamous epithelium
- thes cells and type I alveolar cells form the alveolar-capillary (A-C) membrane.
Alveolar-capillary (A-C) membrane
a thin membrane thet gases can easily diffuse across
Type II alveolar cells
- simple cuboidal epithelium
- secreate surfactant- a soap-like substance that decreases suface tension allowing easey inflamation of the alveoliand preventing the collapse of alveoli after exhalation.
- Alveolar machrophages are there for clean up of large particles and invaders
The process of gas exhange in the body
- The inhalation and exhalation of air
- This invloves the exchange fo air between the atmosphere and the alveoli of eh lungs
- Movement of air into the lungs from the atmosphere
- -Active process requiring muscle action
- Movement of air out f he lungs into the atmosphere
- -Passive process during quiet breating due to the elastic recoil of the lungs
- -Active (muscle help) during vigourus exercise or certain disease conditions causing difficult expiration (chronic obstuctive pulmonary diseases)
What are the five princlipels of the Kinetic Molecular Theory?
- 1. This is a lot more space between gas particle than the gas particles themselves occupy
- 2. Particle move in a straight line until they colide. They move in differnt diredtions and have differnt speeds
- 3. Teh particles in a gas don't interact with each other much, if at all
- 4. When particle collide, all the enery goes tinto bouncing, and mone is absorbed by th particle.
- 5. The average speed of the particles is related to the temperature
True or false
Gases consist of moledcuels that are free to bonce around
- the colisions of these moledules with the wallof a container is known as pressure
- The speed at which the molecules move is temperature
see obj. 7 p. 833
- Assume temperature is constant
- -e.g. human body =370C
- Pressure and volume are inversly related
- that means tha if volume goes up, pressure goes down
- if volume goes down, pressure goes up
How does Boyle's law have a direct applicationto the princlipels governing inspiraton and expiratoin?
- During inspiraton, the diaphragm, internal intercastal muscles and extgernal intercostal muscles all contract
- These movements increase The volume of the thoracic cavity
- so if volume goes up , pressure goes down
- see obj. 8 p.835
- Air may leak into athe pleural cavity from trauma to the lung or a spontaneous rupture of a bleb, a weak spot on the lung
- The pressuer of the air does not allow the lung to fully inflate and a collapsed lung may occur.
- This is treated by placing a chest tube between the ribs in the wall of he thoracic cavity. which allows the air to flow out.
- The tube is then removed or sealed off and the hole in the chest wall repaired so the lungs can spontaneously re-inflate
- Test pulmonary funtion
- measures the volume of air exchanged during breathing and the respiratory rate.
- the record of this measurement is called a spirogram
- Four respiratory volumes and four respiratory capacities are measured
- Tidal volume (VT): Volume of air inspired or expired during normal quiet breathing
- Inspiratory Reserve Volume: all of the air that you can breathe in from the top of tidal volume (during very deep inhalaiton)
- Expiratory Reserve Volume: all of he air that you can breathe out from the bottom of tidal volume during a forced exhalation.
- Residal Volume: Air still present in lung tissue after the thoracic cavity has been opened
combinations of specific lung volumes:
- Inpiratory capacity: The sum of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume
- Functional residual capacity: The sum of the residual volume and expiratory reserve volume
- Vital cpacity: the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and espiratory reserve volume.
- Total Lung capacity: Sum of vital capacity and residual volume.
- The gas molecules in a mixture basically ignore each other
- Each contributes a little bit of pressure
- Therefore, the total pressure is the sum of pressures coming from each gas
- -this is called the sum of partial pressures
- The amount of gas dissolved in a liquid (like blood) is proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid
- For example, carbonated drink
- -CO2 gas in the space above surface liquid is in equalibrium with the CO2 gas dissolved in the soda
- -When you uncap it, the CO2 in solution is released into the air (remember, partial pressure of CO2 in air is almost zero)
- -Soda goes flat.
see objective 11 p.840-841