"Molecules move across membrane against concentration gradient; Requires energy (adenosine triphosphate, or ATP) and carrier mechanism; Example: sodium-potassium pump maintains high concentration intracellular potassium and high concentration extracellular sodium by actively transporting potassium from extracellular fluid (5 mEq/L) to intracellular fluid (150 mEq/L)"
Mineralocorticoid steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex with action in the renal tubule to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood.
"Polypeptide occurring in the blood, causing vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex."
"Difference between the concentrations of serum cations and anions, determined by measuring the concentrations of sodium cations and chloride and bicarbonate anions. (Potter 1178)"
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Hormone that decreases the production of urine by increasing the reabsorption of water by the renal tubules. ADH is secreted by cells of the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (Potter 1178)
Procedure in which blood is removed from a donor and stored for a variable period before it is returned to the donor's own circulation. (Potter 1178)
Substance or group of substances that can absorb or release hydrogen ions to correct an acid-base imbalance. (Potter 1179)
colloid osmotic pressure
"Abnormal condition of the kidney caused by the pressure of concentrations of large particles, such as protein molecules, that will pass through a membrane. (Potter 1179)"
Gradient that exists across a membrane separating a high concentration of a particular ion from a low concentration of the same ion. (Potter 1180)
"Excessive loss of water from the body tissues, accompanied by a disturbance of body electrolytes, increased body temp"
Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. (Potter 1181)
"Element or compound that, when melted or dissolved in water or other solvent, dissociates into ions and can carry an electrical current. (Potter 1182)"
electronic infusion device (EID)
A piece of medical equipment that delivers intravenous fluids at a prescribed rate through an intravenous catheter. (Potter 1182)
Water and solutes move from area high hydrostatic pressure to area low hydrostatic pressure; Usually occurs across capillary membranes; Created by pumping action heart & gravity against capillary wall; Occurs in glomerulus of kidneys & arterial end capillaries
"Breakdown of red blood cells and release of hemoglobin that may occur after administration of hypotonic intravenous solutions, causing swelling and rupture of erythrocytes. (Potter 1184)"
"State of relative constancy in the internal environment of the body, maintained naturally by physiological adaptive mechanisms. (Potter 1184)"
Pressure caused by a liquid. (Potter 1184)
Greater-than-normal amount of calcium in the blood. (Potter 1184)
Greater concentration of solutes than plasma; Water is drawn out of the cell; Cell shrinks; Example 3 % sodium chloride
Lower concentration of solutes than plasma; Water moves into cells; Cells swell and rupture; Example 0.45 % sodium chloride
Dislodging an intravenous catheter or needle from a vein into the subcutaneous space. (Potter 1185)
Device that delivers a measured amount of fluid over a period of time. (Potter 1185)
Same concentration of solutes in plasma; Cells will neither shrink nor swell; No net gain or loss of water; No change in cell volume; Example Normal saline (0.9 % sodium chloride solution)
Abnormal condition of high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid caused by either a primary increase in hydrogen ions or a decrease in bicarbonate. (Potter 1186)
Abnormal condition characterized by the significant loss of acid from the body or by increased levels of bicarbonate. (Potter 1186)
"Higher concentration of protein(albumin) in plasma exert colloid osmotic pressure (oncotic pressure), pulling fluid from interstitial space into intravascular"
"Number of solutes per kilogram of water (by weight); Reported in milliosmoles per kilogram (mOsm/kg); Normal osmolality of ICF & ECF ranges between 275-295 mOsm/kg; Osmolality of ECF depends on Na+ concentration (Estimate by doubling serum sodium, Example: Na+ (142 mEq/L) X 2 = 284 mOsm/kg); Osmolality of ECF related to glucose and urea concentration"
Amount of solutes per liter; Reported in milliosmoles per liter (mOsm/L); measure to describe this drawing power in urine and serum
Neurons in the hypothalamus that are sensitive to the fluid concentration in the blood plasma and regulate the secretion of antidiuretic hormone. (Potter 1187)
"Water moves from low solute to high solute concentration, Selectively permeable membrane allows Water to cross, but not solutes"
"Drawing power for water, which depends on the number of molecules in the solution. (Potter 1187)"
Inflammation of a vein. (Potter 1188)
"Proteolytic enzyme, produced by and stored in the juxtaglomerular apparatus that surrounds each arteriole as it enters a glomerulus. The enzyme affects the blood pressure by catalyzing the change of angiotensinogen to angiotensin, a strong repressor. (Potter 1190)"
"Abnormal condition characterized by increased arterial carbon dioxide concentration, excess carbonic acid, and increased hydrogen ion concentration. (Potter 1190)"
Abnormal condition characterized by decreased arterial carbon dioxide concentration and decreased hydrogen ion concentration. (Potter 1190)
sensible water loss
Loss of fluid from the body through the secretory activity of the sweat glands and the exhalation of humidified air from the lungs. (Potter 1190)
Substance dissolved in a solution. (Potter 1191)
"Mixture of one or more substances dissolved in another substance. The molecules of each of the substances disperse homogeneously and do not change chemically. A solution may be a liquid, gas, or solid. (Potter 1191)"
Any liquid in which another substance can be dissolved. (Potter 1191)
Systemic response by the body to the administration of blood incompatible with that of the recipient. (Potter 1192)
"Technique in which a vein is punctured transcutaneously by a sharp rigid stylet (e.g., a butterfly needle), a cannula (e.g., an angiocatheter that contains a flexible plastic catheter), or a needle attached to a syringe. (Potter 1192)"
effect solutions osmotic pressure has on water movement across the cell membrane
High hydrostatic pressure in the arteriole pushes fluid out to cells; Osmolarity increases on the venule side of the capillary thus creating osmotic pull to draw fluid back in vascular space
A glistening taut (tight) appearance of the skin from fluid buildup