Cold war era
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What were the Nuremburg Trials?
The Nuremburg Trials were when the Allies put 22 lead Nazis on trial for violating war 'crimes against humanity' (especially crimes against the holocaust)
What happened to the 22 people who were tried on the Nuremburg Trials?
- 1 committed suicide
- 3 acquitted
- 11 death penalty
- 7 sentenced to prison
What did the Nuremburg Trials establish to the people?
The Nuremburg Trials established the principal that individuals would be held responsible for their actions even in time of war
Who occupied Japan from 1945-1952?
United States led by Douglas MacArthur occupied Japan from 1945-1952
What happened after the United States took over Japan from 1945-1952?
- Japan had to disband their military
- Japan wrote a new constitution creating a democratic government
Why did Japan become one of the leading economic powers in the world after WW||?
They became the leader in economic power because U.S. game Japan 3 Billion dollars to help rebuild. They spent that money to build new factories, had quality education system, and did not have to spend money on a military.
What was the Yalta Conference?
The Yalta Conference was a meeting held between the United States, Britain, and Russia to plan for the end of WW||
What was accomplished at the Yalta Conference?
- At the Yalta Conference they decided that Germany would be divided into 4 zones controlled by U.S. ,Britain ,Russia and France. Soviet Union agreed to remove troops and allow free elections in Eastern European countries liberated from German control.
- created the United Nations
What is the United Nations?
The United Nations was an international peacekeeping organization created to avoid was and settle international dispute peacefully.
In the U.N. who were part of the security council and could veto any U.N. policy?
U.S., France, Britain, soviet Union, and china
How did Soviet Union spread Communism to Eastern Europe?
Stalin refused to keep his agreement tonremove Soviet troops and allow an open election in Eastern Europe.
What countries fell under the control of the Soviets and were forced to implement Communist government?
- East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Poland.
- they became known as Satellite Nations.
What was the Iron Curtain?
The Iron Curtain was an imaginary line that separated Eastern Europe and Western Europe.
What was the Truman Doctrine?
The Truman Doctrine Is a policy issued by president Truman after the Soviet Union supported commits revolutions in turkey and Greece that stated the U.S. would support nations against Communism.
What was the policy of Containment?
The policy of Containment was a policy created by the U.S. to stop the spread of Communism by the Soviet Union outside the Iron Curtain.
What was the Marshall Plan and why was it created?
- The Marshall Plan was when the U.S. sent 13 billion dollars in grants and loans to 17 western European countries to help them rebuild after WW||.
- They did this because if the western Europeans were economically recovered then that meant strong democracies which helped to stop the spread of Communism.
What was the Berlin Airlift?
This was when U.S. , Britain, and France gave up their zones, creating West Germany. Russia kept their zone creating East Germany.
In 1948 why did Soviet Union block access to west Berlin?
They did this to try and get west Germany to surrender west Berlin.
What was NATO?
NATO was a military alliance with U.S. and western European countries to defend western European countries against attack by Soviet Union.
What was the Warsaw pact?
This was created in response to NATO by the Soviet Union. It was a military alliance with its satellite nations in eastern Europe.
What was Arms Race?
This was when U.S. and Soviet Union began to both build nuclear bombs and ICBMs to use in case of war between the two.
What was the Great Leap forward?
Mao Zedong created communes which were huge government collective farms which resulted in crop failures and a famine killing 20 million people. It ended in 1961
What was the Chinese Culture Revolution?
This was when Mao felt officials had moved to far away from communist principle and social equality. So Mao created Red Guards to reassert his control and arrest people of upper class who opposed communist philosophy.
Why was the Chinese Culture Revolution stopped by 1976?
It was stopped because of its impact on the economy, closing down factories and decreasing farm production.
What was the Tiananmen Square Massacre?
In 1989 Beijing students Led a rally demanding democracy in China at Tiananmen Square , Deng sent in military killing and sending thousands to prison for promoting democracy.
What was the Korean War?
After WW|| Korea was divided into North (communist) and South (pro-America) Korea by the Allies. In 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea to unite the country in communist rule.
What did the United Nations do in the Korean War?
The united Nations forces led by American General Douglas MacArthur supported South Korea forcing North Korea to retreat deep into their own territory.
What is the 38th parallel?
This was the original border between north and South Korea.
What was Vietnam divided into north and south?
- From 1945-1954 the Vietnam led by Ho Chi Minh fought the French for their independence.
- This led to the Geneva Conference which North Vietnam (led by communist Ho Chi Minh) and South Vietnam ( American backed dictator Ngo Dinah Diem)
What is Vietcong?
These were communist guerrillas that fought South Vietnam to overthrow corrupt government. They are supported by North Korea.
What was the Gulf of Tonkin Incident?
President Johnson sends American troops to Vietnam after North Vietnamese patrol boats attack two American destroyers.
What was SEATO?
This was a military alliance between southeastern Asia Countries following the Geneva Conference in 1954
Who were the members of the SEATO?
Member nations were Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, South Vietnam, Cambodia, Singapore, Brunei, and Burma.
Why did SEATO fail?
It failed because nations had to have total agreement on any actions taken. SEATO was disbanded in 1977
Who was Fidel Castro?
Fidel Castro was the leader of a revolution in Cuba during the Cuban Missile crisis where he over threw the Cuban dictator, implemented Communism and developed ties with the Soviet Union.
On what terms did Khrushchev agree to remove the missiles during the Cuban Missile Crises?
Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if America agreed to not invade Cuba and remove missiles from turkey.
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