CONCEPTS CHAP 8

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sandovalfj
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207791
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CONCEPTS CHAP 8
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2013-03-17 22:12:19
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CONCEPTS CHAP
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CONCEPTS CHAP 8
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  1. WHAT IS THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME
    • STRUCTURE: SINGLE, CIRCULAR CHROMOSOME
    • FUNCTION: TO REPLICATE GENTIC INFORMATION
  2. HOW ARE REGULATORY AND STRUCTURAL GENES FUNCTIONALLY DIFFERENT
    • REGULATORY GENES: CONTROL GENE EXPRESSION
    • STRUCTURAL GENES: CODES FOR RNA MACHINERY USED IN PROTEIN PRODUCTION
  3. WHAT IS THE BASE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF DNA NUCLEOTIDES
    • PHOSPHATE
    • DEOXYRIBOSE SUGAR
    • NITROGENOUS BASE

    • NUCLEOTIDES COVALENTLY BOND TO EACH OTHER IN A SUGAR PHOSPHATE LINKAGE THAT BECOMES THAT BACKBONE OF EACH STRAND
    • EACH SUGAR ATTACHES IN A REPETITIVE PATTERN TO 2 PHOSPHATES
    • ONE IS TO THE 5' CARBON AND THE OTHER TO THE 3' CARBON
    • GUANINE CYTOSINE ADENINE THYMINE
  4. WHAT IS THE BASE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF RNA NUCLEOTIDES
    • RIBOSE
    • SINGLE STRANDED IN HELICAL FORM
    • CAN ASSUME SECONDARY AND TERTIARY LEVELS OF COMPLEXITY
    • LEADING TO SPECIALIZED FORMS OF RNA (tRNA AND rRNA)
    • GUANINE CYTOSINE ADENINE URACIL
  5. WHATS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PYRIMIDINE AND PURINE BASES
    • THYMINE AND CYTOSINE ARE PYRIMIDINES 
    • ADENINE AND GUANINE ARE PURINES
    • THEY ARE ATTRACTED TO EACH OTHER BECAUSE OF EACH HAS THE COMPLIMENTARY 3 DIMENSIONAL SHAPE THAT MATCHES ITS PAIR
  6. WHAT IS THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF A DNA STRAND
    • PHOSPHODIESTER BACKBONE
    • HYDROGEN BONDING BETWEEN COMPLEMENTARY (PYRIMIDINE-PURINE) BASES
    • ANTIPARALLEL CONFIGURATION 5' TO 3' FLOW IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS
    • DOUBLE HELIX
  7. DESCRIBE BIDIRECTIONAL DNA SYNTHESIS
    • ENZYME HELICASE UNZIPS DNA DOUBLE STRAND INTO SINGLE STRAND BY BREAKING HYDROGEN BONDS
    • ONE LEADING
    • ONE LAGGING
    • ENZYME PRIMASE SYNTHESIZES AN RNA PRIMER
    • ENZYME DNA POLYMERASE III ADDS BASES TO THE NEW DNA CHAIN AND PROOF READS FOR MISTAKES
    • ENZYME DNA POLYMERASE I REMOVES PRIMER, CLOSES GAPS AND REPAIRS MISTAKES
    • ENZYME LIGASE FINAL BINDING OF NICKS IN DNA DURING SYNTHESIS AND REPAIR
    • TOPOISOMERASES I AND II  SUPERCOILING AND UNTANGLING
  8. DESCRIBE LEADING STRAND SYNTHESIS
    SYNTHESIZED CONTINUOUSLY BY DNA POLYMERASE III
  9. DESCRIBE LAGGING STRAND SYNTHESIS
    • PRIMASE SYNTHESIZES RNA PRIMER
    • DNA POLYMERASE III ADDS BASES TO THE NEW DNA CHAIN IN SECTIONS CALLED OKAZAKI FRAGMENTS
    • DNA POYMERASE I REMOVES PRIMER, CLOSES GAPS 
    • LIGASE FINAL BINDING OF NICKS IN DNA DURING SYNTHESIS AND REPAIR
  10. WHY DOES LEADING AND LAGGING STRAND SYNTHESIS OCCUR
    • BECAUSE OF SEMICONSERVATIVE REPLICATION
    • MORE EFFICIENT TO REPLICATE TWO STRANDS AT THE SAME TIME
  11. WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF TRANSCRIPTION IN PROKARYOTES
    • RNA POLYMERASE STARTS AT THE PROMOTER REGION
    • RNA POLYMERASE CONTINUES DOWN THE TEMPLATE STRAND AND SYNTHESIZES A COMPLEMENTARY RNA STRAND USING GUANINE ADENINE CYTOSINE AND URACIL
    • RNA POLYMERASE REACHES THE TERMINATION SEQUENCE AND STOPS SYNTHESIS FINISHING THE mRNA
  12. WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATION IN PROKARYOTES
  13. WHAT IS THE SIZE DIFFERENCE IN PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES
    • PROKARYOTES: 70S
    • EUKARYOTES: 80S
  14. WHAT DOES THE AUG START CODON CODE FOR IN PROKARYOTES
    FORMYL METHIONINE
  15. WHAT IS PROKARYOTIC CELL EFFICIENCY IN PRE AND POST TRANSLATIONAL REGULATION
    • POST TRANSLATIONAL : SOME MUST HAVE STARTING AMINO ACID REMOVED
    • COFACTORS MUST BE ADDED TO PROTEINS DESTINED TO BECOME ENZYMES
    • SOME JOIN OTHER PROTEINS TO FORM QUATERNARY STRUCTURES
  16. DESCRIBE THE STEPS OF AN INDUCIBLE OPERON (LAC OPERON)
    • OPERON NORMALLY IN "OFF" MODE WHICH IS MAINTAINED BY A REPRESSOR IN THE ABSENCE OF LACTOSE BY BINDING TO THE OPERATOR LOCUS
    • WHEN LACTOSE IS PRESENT IT BINDS TO THE REPRESSOR PROTEIN CHANGING IT AND DISLODGING IT FROM THE OPERATOR ALLOWING RNA POLYMERASE TO BIND TO THE PROMOTER AND PROCEED
    • STRUCTURAL GENES ARE TRANSCRIBED IN A SINGLE UNBROKEN TRANSCRIPT CODING FOR ALL THREE ENZYMES
  17. DESCRIBE THE STEPS OF A REPRESSIBLE OPERON (TRYPTOPHAN OPERON)
  18. NAME THE THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN OPERON
    • REGULATOR
    • CONTROL LOCUS
    • STRUCTURAL LOCUS
  19. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE REGULATOR IN AN OPERON
    GENE THAT CODES FOR A PROTEIN CAPABLE OF REPRESSING THE OPERON
  20. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE CONTROL LOCUS IN AN OPERON
    COMPOSED OF THE PROMOTER AND THE OPERATOR, A SEQUENCE THAT ACTS AS AN ON/OFF SWITCH
  21. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE STRUCTURAL LOCUS IN AN OPERON
    MADE UP OF THREE GENES, EACH CODING FOR A DIFFERENT ENZYME NEEDED TO CATABOLIZE LACTOSE
  22. DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF CONJUGATION
    • GRAM NEGATIVE CONJUGATION
    • F' FACTOR ALLOWS THE SYNTHESIS OF A CONJUGATIVE SEX PILUS
    • RECIPIENT CELL HAS A RECOGNITION SITE ON ITS SURFACE
    • F+ CELL HAS THE PLASMID
    • F- CELL THAT LACKS PLASMID
    • SEX PILUS GROWS OUT OF THE F+ CELL AND ATTACHES TO THE SURFACE OF THE F- CELL
    • CONTRACTS AND DRAWS THE CELLS TOGETHER

    • GRAM POSITIVE
    • AN OPENING IS CREATED BETWEEN TWO ADJACENT CELLS
    • REPLICATED DNA PASSES FROM ONE CELL TO ANOTHER
  23. DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMATION
  24. DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF TRANSDUCTION
  25. WHATS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AND F+ AND AN F- CELL
  26. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE F- CELL AFTER CONJUGATION
  27. WHAT IS THE BIOMEDICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PLASMIDS AND SOME OF THE CAPABILITIES THEY CODE FOR
    • HAVE RESISTANCE (R) PLASMIDS OR FACTORS  BEAR GENES FOR RESISTING ANTIBIOTICS AND OTHER DRUGS
    • RESISTANCE TO HEAVY METALS
    • SYNTHESIS OF VIRULENCE FACTORS
  28. WHAT MAKES A CELL A HIGH FREQUENCY RECOMBINANT (Hfr) DONOR
    • PLASMIDS BECOMES INTEGRATED INTO THE F+ DONOR CHROMOSOME
    • BEGINS TO TRANSFER TO THE RECIPIENT CELL
    • SOME CHROMOSOMAL GENES GET TRANSFERRED TO THE RECIPIENT
    • PLASMID GENES MAY OR MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED
  29. WHAT IS GENERALIZED TRANSDUCTION
  30. WHAT IS SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION
  31. WHAT ARE TRANSPOSONS
  32. WHAT IS A MISSENSE MUTATION
    EFFECT
  33. WHAT IS A NON-SENSE MUTATION
    EFFECT
  34. WHAT IS A SILENT MUTATION
    EFFECT
  35. WHAT IS A FRAMESHIFT MUTATION
    EFFECT
  36. WHAT IS A BACK MUTATION
    EFFECT
  37. WHAT CAUSES SPONTANEOUS MUTATIONS
  38. WHAT CAUSES INDUCED MUTATIONS
  39. WHAT IS THE PROOF-READING MECHANISM OF DNA POLYMERASE III
  40. WHAT IS THE PROOF-READING MECHANISM OF DNA POLYMERASE I
  41. WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF EXCISION
  42. WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF NUCLEOTIDE REPLACEMENT
  43. WHAT IS THE PROCESS AND FUNCTION OF THE PCR
    • FUNCTION: TO AMPLIFY THE AMOUNT OF DNA
    • PROCESS: 
    • DENATURATION - RAISE TEMP TO 94 CELCIUS TO BREAK HELIX INTO 2 STRANDS
    • PCR COOLS DOWN TO 54 CELCIUS AND
    • PRIMING - PRIMERS ARE ADDED WHICH PREPARE TWO DNA STRANDS FOR SYNTHESIS
    • EXTENSION - PCR IS HEATED TO 72 CELCIUS AND DNA POLYMERASE AND NUCLEOTIDES ARE ADDED
    • NEW STRANDS ARE SYNTHESIZED
    • = 1 CYCLE
  44. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES
  45. WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF GEL ELECTROPHORESIS
    • FUNCTION: TO PRODUCE A READABLE PATTERN OF DNA FRAGMENTS
    • PROCESS:
    • RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES ARE ADDED TO DNA TO CHOP THEM UP INTO SMALLER PIECES 
    • SAMPLES ARE PLACED IN COMPARTMENTS IN A SOFT AGAR GEL
    • ELECTRODES ARE ATTACHED TO THE PLATE + ON ONE END  - ON THE OTHER END
    • PHOSPHATE GROUPS HAVE A - CHARGE AND ARE ATTRACTED TO THE + POLE IN THE GEL
    • LARGER FRAGMENTS MOVE MORE SLOWLY WHILE SMALLER FRAGMENTS MOVE MORE QUICKLY LEAVING UNIQUE GENETIC FINGERPRINTS
  46. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF PLASMIDS IN GENETIC ENGINEERING

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