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What does CF3CO3H do?
CF3CO3H is the only thing that can turn an NH2 into an NO2
What do Nucleophiles (ex: SH, CH3-) do?
Nucleophiles (ex: SH, CH3-) replace halides so long as there's a director on the aromatic ring already
What does SnCl2 , H+ do?
SnCl2 , H+ is the only thing that can turn an NO2 into an NH2
What does KMnO4 , H+ , Δ do?
- KMnO4 , H+ , Δ changes a CH3 (or CH2, CH, etc.) into a Carboxyl group always.
- If attacking an aromatic ring, it will attack the CH groups immediately adjacent to it/hanging off it's ring
What does HNO3 , H2SO4 do?
HNO3 , H2SO4 combined turn an H into a NO2
What does Br2 , FeBr3 (or any other X combo) combined do?
Br2 , FeBr3 combined mean you halogenate (take place of H) of the Carbons relative to what's already on the ring
What does just H2SO4 do?
Just H2SO4 replaces the H with HSO3 relative to what's already on the ring
What are Halides?
How do Halides direct?
- Halides are technically weak EWG's, but when directing they do O/P like EDG's do
What happens if there's no activating groups (EDG's) present but a Halide (ex: Br, Cl) is
present on the ring?
If there aren't any activating groups (EDG's) present but a Halide is present, the Halide takes over as director! (even though it's technically a EWG)
What does NaOH do?
NaOH replaces a Halide with OH only if the Halide is O/P to the EWG substituent already on the ring
What happens if you're doing a Friedel-Crafts reaction (ex: CH3-Cl + AlCl3) and you have a strong EWG already on the ring?
If doing a Friedel-Crafts reaction (ex: CH3-Cl + AlCl3) and you have a strong EWG already on the ring, there will be no reaction
What does NaNH2 , NH3 do?
- NaNH2 , NH3 replaces a Halide with an NH2 group and it adds an NH2 onto the Carbon adjacent to the Carbon that had the Halide
Under what conditions can you replace a Halide?
If have nothing on ring: You can replace a Halide normally (just straight up replace it)
If have an EDG on ring: You can replace the Halide normally (just straight up replace it)
HOWEVER, if there's a Strong EWG on the ring, then in order to replace/substitute out the Halide, the Halide must be in the O/P position relative to the Strong EWG already on the ring.