Anatomy Unit II

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bashycat14
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207825
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Anatomy Unit II
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2013-03-17 16:54:24
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skeletal bones muscle muscular
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unit 2 exam
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  1. Skeletal Functions (6)
    • Support
    • protection
    • body size and shape
    • store ex. calcium, fat
    • blood cell production 
    • movement
  2. 3 things made of connective tissue
    • bone
    • dense regular ex. ligaments tendons
    • cartilage ex. hyaline fibrocartilage
  3. 5 Classifications of bone
    • long ex. femur
    • short ex. carpals (have a lot of spongy)
    • flat ex. cranial, sternum
    • irregular (mix of shapes) ex. scapula, vertebrae
    • sesamoid (floating) ex. patella
  4. 2 Classifications of Joints
    • By movement allowed
    • material
  5. 3 different joint by movement allowed classifications
    • syarthoses-no movement
    • ampiarthoses-slight movement
    • diarthroses-freely moveable
  6. 3 material joint classifications
    • fibrous-fibers connecting to bone
    • cartilagenous-cartilage between
    • synovial-fluid between-most abundant
  7. 3 types of fibrous material
    • gomphoses (peg in joint)
    • sutures
    • syndesmoses
  8. 2 types of carilagenous material
    • synchadroses-hyaline
    • symhyses-fibro
  9. 1 type of synovial material
    diarthroses
  10. 4 characteristics of synovial
    • membrane that produces lubrication
    • joint capsule around joint
    • ligaments connecting bones
    • articular(hyaline) cartilage on ends of bones
  11. 4 other random things in joints
    • fibrocartilage pads-meniscus
    • fat pads
    • tendon sheaths-tube bursa"around tendon"
    • bursa-fluid sac
  12. 6 synovial joint types and the type of movement
    • plantar/gliding- biaxial
    • hinge-uniaxial
    • pivot-uniaxial
    • ellipsoidal/condyloid-biaxial
    • saddle(only in thumb)-biaxial
    • ball n socket-multiaxial
  13. 4 ways of joint stability
    • way bones articulate with each other
    • ligaments that connect
    • muscles n tendons across joints
    • external bone support
  14. 6 different knee joints
    • lateral (fibular) collateral ligament-LCL
    • medial (tibial) collateral ligament-MCL
    • anterior crucate ligament-ACL
    • posterior crucate ligament-PCL
    • lateral meniscus
    • medial meniscus
  15. 3 Groupings of General ROM
    • flexion-extension-hyperextension
    • abduction-adduction
    • rotation-circumdiction
  16. flexion-extension-hyperextension
    • reduce angle
    • increase angle
    • increase beyond 180
  17. abduction-adduction
    • away from midline
    • towards midline
  18. rotation-circumduction
    • circle one plane
    • circle many
  19. 7 Groupings of Special ROM
    • supination-pronation 
    • inversion-eversion
    • dorsiflexion-plantarflexion
    • opposition
    • protraction-retraction
    • elevation-depression
    • gliding
  20. supination-pronation
    • palms forward
    • palms backwards
  21. inversion-eversion
    • curl inward
    • curl outward
  22. dorsiflexion-plantarflexion
    • toes up kicking
    • toes down point
  23. opposition
    thumb to our hand
  24. protraction-retraction
    • chin forward
    • chin backward
  25. elevation-depression
    mouth closed-mouth open
  26. gliding
    jaw side to side
  27. Bursitis
    inflamed bursa on elbow
  28. tendonitis
    inflamed tendon sheaths
  29. 3 types of arthritis
    • osteoarthritis-old age/wear n tear
    • rheumatoid-autoimmune
    • gouty-uric acid
  30. dislocation
    bones pop out
  31. sprain
    stretched ligament or joint capsule
  32. 2 types of living cells in bones
    osteoblasts-build up bones


    osteoclast-breaks down thebones
  33. 2 types of non living matrix in bones
    • collagen fibers-give flexibility
    • calcium salts-give strenght (phosphate n carbonate)
  34. 2 major types of bones
    flat n long
  35. Flat bones made....
    made by intermembranous ossification
  36. ossification centers
    bone grows out from them
  37. fontanels
    soft spot that takes 18 months to use
  38. long bones made....
    made by replacement of cartilage/endochodrial ossification
  39. Epiphysis ends in long bones(features)
    • spongy bone
    • red bone marrow-blood cells
    • has articular cartilage
  40. diaphysis in long bones (features)
    • hollow compact bone
    • has yellow bone marrow-adipose
    • laid bone in circular layers around vessels
    • membranes
    • -periosteum-ostioblasts-outside
    • -endosteum-osteoclasts-inside
  41. gradient diffusion in spongy bone
    no blood vessels
  42. 5 steps to formation of bone
    • make crude bone from hyaline cartilage
    • form collar of bone on outside
    • do primary ossification of the diaphisis
    • begin secondary ossification of the epiphysis
    • bones grow in length at epiphyseal/growth plate
  43. 3 ways of bone maintenance
    • minerals
    • vitamins
    • hormones
  44. 3 minerals in bone maintenance
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • fluoride
  45. 4 vitamins in bone maintenance and their use
    • A-control of osteoblast/clast
    • C-collagen fibers
    • D-calcium uptake
    • Folic Acid- development
  46. 5 hormones in bone maintenance and their use
    • calcitonin(thyroid) removes CA from blood into bones
    • PTH(parathyroid) increases blood CA levels-breakdown bone matrix
    • HgH(Antipituitary)bone growth n development
    • Testosterone n Estrogen-growth spurts n changes puberty
    • Thyroxin(Thyroid) metabolism control
  47. 3 random factors in bone maintenance
    • genetics
    • activity
    • not smoking
  48. Remodelling
    • changes in our bone overtime
    • involves local action of the osteoblasts/clasts
  49. 3 major things can cause remodelling
    • bone growth-keep bones strong but light-make sure they are proper shape-make sure they get together properyly
    • Stress on bone activity
    • bone repair
  50. 3 fracture types
    • complete-incomplete
    • open (compound)-closed(simple)
    • direction of fracture
    • -transverse-across
    • -linem-long acess
    • -oblique-angle
  51. 5 bone healing steps
    • fracture
    • hematoma
    • bony callus
    • repaired bone
    • remodeling
  52. typical fracture lasts...
    • lasts 8 weeks
    • weight bearing take longer
  53. osteomalacia
    soft bones
  54. osteoporosis
    porous bones
  55. pagets disease
    excessive spongy bone
  56. 3 abnormal types of spine curvatures
    • lordosis-sway back lumbar to far forward
    • kyphosis-abnormal thorasic curve-hunchback
    • scolliosis-abnormal side to side curve
  57. 5 Muscle Functions
    • movement
    • posture maintenance
    • joint stability
    • heat production
    • body size n shape
  58. Fasicles-bundle of muscle fibers help to determine (4 things)
    • shape of muscle
    • function of muscle
    • strength of contraction
    • degree of shortening-how small they can get parallel to how much they contract
  59. origin
    attached to the non moving bone-bigger end of muscle with more mass
  60. insertion
    attached to the moving bone, across joint
  61. Agonist
    prime mover
  62. antagonist
    moves opposite of agonist
  63. synergist
    aids the agonist
  64. fixator
    anchors the origin
  65. lever action of muscles (3)
    • muscle-force effort
    • joint-fulcrum/pivot point
    • bone/body part-load resistance
  66. levers provide (2 things)
    • mechanical advantage-movement with loss of force
    • provides speed
  67. 9 ways in muscle naming
    direc
    • bone attached to
    • location
    • shape
    • size of muscle
    • function of the muscle
    • direction
    • number of origins
    • origin/insertion
    • directional terms
  68. all flexors are on the...
    on the anterior side (except knee)
  69. all extensors are on the....
    on the posterior side
  70. abductors are on the...while adductors are on the....
    on the lateral side while...are on the medial
  71. muscles are _____ of what they are moving
    proximal
  72. most muscle is connected to bones by tendons because (4 reasons)
    • tendons make stronger connections
    • more durable
    • save space
    • connect to muscle by connective tissue
  73. muscles are bundles of bundles which (3 reasons)
    • allow better control
    • helps with durability
    • space 4 blood vessels and nerves
  74. 6 muscle structural levels
    • muscle
    • fasicle
    • myofibers
    • myofibril
    • sarcomeres
    • myofilaments
  75. muscle
    bundles of fasicles surrounded by epimysium
  76. fasicle
    bundles of myofibers surrounded by perimysium filled with endomysium
  77. myofibers
    • bundle of myofibrils
    • muscle cells-long cylinder striated surrounded by sarcolemma
  78. 8 features of myofibers
    • multinucleated
    • 3 types
    • (slow twitch) have lots of mitochondria
    • (fast twitch) have glycogen
    • myofibrils-contractile
    • T tubule system-get contraction signals
    • sarcoplasmic reticulum- stores CA
    • contain myoglobin-stores Oxygen
  79. myofibril
    bundle of myofilaments n strings of sarcomeres
  80. sarcomeres
    • contractile unites
    • produce striation of muscles formed by overlap of dark n light alternating
  81. when muscle contracts....
    • slide filaments together
    • shortens sarcomere which shortens mucle
  82. myofilaments
    protein of fiber group
  83. thick filament
    • composed of myosin 
    • forms stubby club
    • has protein titan springs on ends
  84. thin filaments
    • 2 strings of actin beads twisted
    • strands of tropomysin in beads
    • typroponin pieces on tropomysin
  85. myogram
    graph of contraction
  86. 4 periods on myogram
    • latent-time from stimulation to contraction
    • contraction-muscle shortens force increases
    • relaxation
    • refractory-recovery
  87. 3 types of muscle fibers
    • fast
    • intermediate
    • slow
  88. 2 contraction types
    • isotonic
    • isometric
  89. isotonic
    • muscle length changes
    • force constant
    • increase endurance n efficiency
    • typical of aerobic
  90. isometric
    • develops force
    • length doesn't change
    • cause increase in myofibril mass and number
    • increase contractile mass=increase strength
    • typical of anerobic resistance activities
  91. cardiac muscle
    • branched striated
    • woven into bands of our heart
    • cells have interculated discs on the ends which hold cells tightly n have gap junctions
  92. cardiac muscle features
    • lots of mitochondria
    • large T tubules
    • less sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • respond to both neural n chemical signals involuntary
    • as muscle stretches it develops tension increases contractile force
    • long refractory period prevents tetanus(long sustained contractions)
  93. Smooth Muscle
    • no striation but some proteins
    • fiber not on surface pulls together
    • single nucleus per cell
    • responds to neural n chem signals
    • involuntary
    • muscle stretch doesn't always develop tension
    • usually found in layers of organs
  94. muscle contraction steps1-3
    • -muscle divided up into fiber groups called motor units-all fibers of the group controlled by the same motor neuron-they all contract together and to the same extent-make stronger by activating more groups
    • -motor neurons make a connection (synapse) with muscle fibers
    • -motor neuron releases acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) by exocytosis
  95. muscle contraction steps 4-6
    • -acetylcholine binds to the receptors on the fibers-when enough are bout the muscle cell is stimulated
    • -contraction signal enters the cells via the T tubules
    • -signal causes release of CA from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  96. muscle contraction steps 7-9
    • -CA binds to the thin filament removing block-thick n thin may now connect
    • -thick filament head bend n pull thin across thick like tug o war
    • -go through alternating connect-pull
  97. muscle contraction steps 10 n 11
    • -go through process until it can't shorten anymore or stop contraction signal or no more energy (ATP)
    • -ATP used to reset system-muscles are always ready

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