- characterized by increased appetite/weight gain, hypersomnia (10+hrs/day), leaded paralysis, extreme sensitivity to interpersonal rejection, and mood reactivity in which the mood brightens considerably with positive events.
What is melancholic depression?
- most often occurs in older adults
- characterized by anhedonia/inability to be cheered up
- following symptoms: depression worse in the am, early am awakening, psychomotor retardation/agitation, significant anorexia/weight loss, excessive and inappropriate guilt.
What are catatonic features of depression?
Significant psychomotor alterations (immobility, excessive motor activity, mutism, echolaila [repetition of words], inappropriate posturing)
What is psychotic depression?
- When a person has hallucinations and delusions with the mood disturbance.
- Tend to be mood-congruent
What is the DSM-IV-TR criteria for dysthymic disorder?
A. Depressed mood for 2 years, with a depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not
B. 2 or more of the following:
3. low energy/fatigue
4. low self-esteem
5. poor concentration/difficulty making a decision
6. feelings of hopelessness
What are some of the causes of depression?
Neurochemical: norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, dysregulation of GABA. The cells that the monoamines activate have lost the ability to respond
Endocrine: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), which mediates the stress response, malfunctions and creates cortisol, thyroid, and hormonal abnormalities
changes in brain anatomy: atrophy of white matter in frontal lobes, cerebellum, and basal ganglia
psychological: Adverse early life experiences, intrapsychic conflicts, reactions to live events
What is included in a suicide risk assessment?
1. Plan: people with a plan are more serious about suicide and have a higher risk
2. Method: Lethality-some methods are more lethal than others (some methods give person more time to think it through)
3. Rescue: the person who will deceive possible rescuers as to where he/she is is higher risk
What is bipolar I disorder?
Characterized by a patient who swings between manic episodes and major depression
What is bipolar II disorder?
Person swings between a hypomanic episode and major depression