GACE Georgia History
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Reasons for Georgia colonization
Humanitarianism: Concern for less fortunate classes in England, both debtor and non-debtor. And also included English protestants first and European protestants second.
Imperial Defense: English want to control as much land in GA as they can to act as a buffer between themselves and Spanish FL
Mercantilism: Colony supplied goods for the home country. Don't buy from someone else what you can produce.
Thomas Bray and James Oglethorpe
English philanthropists. Oglethorpe was a member of parliament who was made chair of a committee to investigate prison conditions. Results of his findings would be released to the public spawning improvement of prison conditions and the release of undeserving prisoners.
Summer of 1730
Oglethorpe, Bray, and their friends petitioned the king of England for a land grant on the south western side of Carolina claim to settle poor persons of London Charter was granted in 1732. Originally 21 trustees with orders of managing a new colony.
Questions of Imperial defense of founding GA
1. How do English get a hold of Spanish and control the debatable land.
2. Take away trade between southern indians and spanish and french.
Originally 21. Granted in the charter of 1732. They were given the responsibility of managing, settling, and governing, the new colony of GA. They could not make any money or own land and they raised most of the money for the settlement by advertising GA throughout all of England. They would receive money, plants, seeds, roots, and most importantly religious tracts.
They were the first non British protestant Germans. They landed in Savannah in March of 1734. They settled in Ebaneezer. Their language barrier, aside from cultural differences keeps them apart from the English.
Another group of German protestants. They were pacifists who leave GA because the constitution calls for malicious services.
Darian : They do not own slaves. Advocated Georgians to own slaves for religious and moral purposes.
The war of Jenkins Ear
Minor skirmish between English and Spanish. Begins in Spring of 1740. Oglethorpe sets out with GA/SC militia and a handful of Indian allies to attack St. Augustine. They hope to lay siege to a fort at St. Augustine but failed and were forced to withdraw. Two years later, Spanish attack English at St. Simons. Eventually the Spanish were defeated at the Battle of Bloody Marsh. Spanish would never come to GA again.
Provisions of GA in the charter
1. Charity colonists were allowed to own fifty acres of land. You would receive five acres of land and 45 outside of the city for farming.
2. No slaves were allowed because people couldn't afford them and slaves did not aid in colonial defense.
3. No strong drink
4. No lawyers or lawsuits allowed
Most profitable GA exports
2. Cows and cattle
3. Indian trade
1. Ends a ban on slavery in GA
2. 2000 whites and 1000 blacks in GA population.
3. A lot of clergy came to GA. George Whitfield founded an orphanage in Savannah and a school for orphans. The Wesley Brothers also came as missionaries.
1754-GA becomes a royal colony
1. A governor and a governors council is established.
2. 2 house legislature
3. Court system
4. GA was divided up into 8 parishes
***main difference between GA and other royal colonies is GA officials were paid by the English crown creating a certain amount of independence from colonial wants and colonial assembly.
3 Royal Governors of GA
1. John Reynolds: captain of the royal navy. Arrives in 1754 and leaves in 1756 because he was so hated.
2. Henry Ellis: Scientist and explorer. Very popular and much more efficient. Gets sick in 1759 and has to return to England for treatment.
3. James Wright: Would be the last royal governor of GA. Originally attorney general of SC. Had a good idea on how a royal colony was supposed to run by his work in SC. He was a successful administrator and personally wanted to see GA succeed.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Made Indian relations better by removing Spanish from FL and removing French from LA.
FL is added as a British province.
Indians give up a large amount of territory north of Augusta.
GA looks nothing like the original charter set by the trustees.
Slavery is abundant
Hard liquor is being drank
Lots of lawyers in Savannah
Government officials own significant amounts of land
GA sends the West Indies food, lumber, and fur. The west Indies sends GA slave, sugar, molasses, and rum. The British send both GA and the West Indies manufactured goods and the West Indies sends British molasses, sugar and rum.
GA and the American Revolution
Most of other colonies issues with restrictions on foreign trade and westward expansion did not bother or concern GA for 3 reasons:
1. GA does not have a high level of foreign trade.Triangular trade dwarfs in comparison to the amount of northern trade occurring.
2. GA has no massive ship builders or owners so they're not importing a large amount of goods.
3. GA has yet to tap in to inland GA much less concern with westward expansion.
British policy which effected GA
1. Revenue Act of 1764 (aka Sugar Act): GA believes act would hurt lumber trade in West Indies.
2. Stamp Act of 1765: Harmful because of the amount of tax and the fact that it was imposed by parliament.
3. Townshends Acts of 1767: They placed a tax on British imports to the colonies.
First indication of GA joining revolutionary movement
Two meetings held at Tondees Tavern in Savannah in 1774. They pass 8 resolutions condemning British policy and they debated on what delegates to send to the first continental congress. Lyman Hall is selected but refuses because he felt like he only represented St. John's Parish and not all of GA. Later, two more delegates are selected in 1775 and refuse along the same grounds.
Reasons GA should stay with Britain
1. GA still gets a lot of aid from Britain
2. A lot of people still had ties in Britain.
3. Not many Georgians took interest in trade restrictions.
4. Because of British defense whether it be on the seas or help against the Creeks.
Reasons GA should cut ties with Britain
1. Scot in Darian all opposed acts of British government.
2. Strong American rights party known as they Whigs (abundant in Savannah).
3. A lot of Georgians saw themselves as Americans and didn't want to be left out of any American issues.
First state constitution 1776
It passed because it wanted to regularize a new government and GA was in need of a court system. It was also called the rules and regulations. It was a temporary document.
1. Set up legislative, executive, and judicial branches with all power being with the legislature.
2. Executive branch had a president and a presidents council all who served a 6 month term.
Radical Whigs vs. Conservative Whigs
Button Gwinette and Colonel Lochland McIntosh would dual as a result of the conflict between the Whigs. Gwinette would succumb to his injuries and McIntosh would be given a military post outside of GA.
February 1777-A 2nd state constitution
1. Most, not all of political power was given to the house of assembly.
2. The executive branch was a governor and executive council.
3. Set up a court system.
4. Forms counties to replace parishes.
5. Creates a bill of rights that calls for equal division of property among heirs.
6. Free exercise of religion
7. Freedom of press
8. Trial by jury
Major post war problems in GA
1. Trouble with the Creek Indians.
2. Disputes with US and Spain over westward lands
3. Argument over GA/SC border
4. Adaptation and ratification of the US and GA constitutions.
Effects of revolution in GA
1. A lot of hard fighting convinced some people they could get along by themselves without the US or British.
2. A lot of colonial upper class had been loyalists, when they leave it's easier for common man to get into politics.
3. A lot of good quantities of good land available, giving GA a strong economic basis.
4. Church of England loses its privileged position.
5. Education receives considerable backing from the state government.
6. Privilege of aristocracy meant less among the common man.
State Constitution of 1789
1. Lasts until 1798
2. House legislature keeps governor and gets rid of council. Gives governor more power than he's ever had before.
3. Gives right to vote to any white male who pays taxes of any kind.
Yazoo land frauds
Largest fraud GA has ever been faced with. In 1789, the land grant process was put into the hands of county officials which opened it up for huge corruption. In 1796, GA had sold 35 thousand to 50 thousand acres of land to 4 land speculation companies for the price of 500 thousand dollars. GA legislatures were promised if they passed the deal they would be given huge lands. To pacify the public, a large section of land was set aside for Georgians at the price speculation companies paid for it. James Gunn, a chief lobbyist for a US senator asked GA legislatures to pass the bill. James Jackson resigned as a US senator and ran in GA and won because he opposed the bill. GA assembly revokes the sale and wants all records of it removed. The 1798 constitution ruled westward land could not be sold until it was surveyed and created as counties open to settlement. Before it was ratified, some lands had already been sold and owners refused to accept the state refund. GA then gives up the land to the US government placing the Yazoo problems on the US government. In a court case Fletcher vs. Peck the US supreme court rules legislative acts may be a contract when it bargains for sale.
Land is divided into counties and counties are divided into 202 plots of land and distributed free in a lottery to citizens unless you are a member of the favored class which included vets of the revolutionary war or widows of vets in the revolutionary war. This is how land was distributed except the gold lands in Dehlonago.
1. Creeks: US promised GA in 1802 that it would removed Indians. By 1821 Creeks give up land but will not give up any more. State government decides to act and Governor Troup decides to get all Creek lands in GA by force. In the Treaty of Indian Springs 1825, lower Creeks give up all land and leave GA, upper Creeks won't abide by treaty. Last of Creek land was secured in 1827 and they leave the area entirely by 1828.
2. Cherokees: were viewed as the most civilized of the Indians because they were Christianized, loved education, and owned slaves. GA legislature decides to extend state law over Cherokees which prevented the Cherokee government from operating in GA by 1830. Cherokees ignore the action of the GA legislature and sought legal protection by the supreme court. Supreme court ruled that Cherokees were not a foreign nation but they had no right to sue in court either. In Worchester vs. GA in 1832 a missionary brings suit in US supreme court. Supreme Court declared GA laws are not applicable to the Cherokee nation. Despite the ruling in 1831 GA surveys land and in 1832 Cherokee land is granted to white settlers. In the winter of 1838 the last of remaining Indians in GA are rounded up by the army and forcibly moved to Indian territory (Trail of Tears).
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