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study of blood
Functions of blood
Regulation-body temp, H2O balance, pH balance
Distribution-transports O2 and Co2, all hormones, glucose, and other chemicals
Protection-WBC fighting invaders. Hemostasis=blood clotting (protects you from losing all that blood)
Characteristics of blood
- Volume=6 liters
- salty-due to Na and other electrolytes
- sticky-protein in blood
- heavier than H2O
- hypertonic to the tissue
- Ph 7.35-7.45
- specific gravity
Percentage of RBC in total volume of blood.
about 45% in males (higher than females)
"formed elements" of the blood
cells (red and white) and platelets
Plasma of blood
liquid portion of the blood
formation of blood cells
in adults, stem cells are in flat bones
- 45% red blood cells
- 1% white blood cells and platelets
- 55% plasma
- Proteins (7%)
- 60% Albumin
- 36% Globulins-gamma immuno antibodies-made by WBC for defense
- 4% Fibrinogen-blood clotting
- Gases (<1%)
- 1% N2, O2, CO2
* proteins made by liver
is a complex mixture of water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes.
- 92% water
- 7% proteins
- 1% electrolytes, wastes, gases, and nutrients, vitamins, and hormones.
myeloid s cells
develops all cells except the lymphocyte. Lymphocyte comes from Lymphoid.
- transport oxygen
- transport CO2
- -biconcave disc
- -anucleate (no nucleus)
- -Hemoglobin (hem, globins, HbA vs HbF)
- -2 chains=146 a.a./2 chains=141 a.a
- -574 amino acids in hemoglobin
- -heme-located in the center. it's what attracts O2
- -One mol. of hemoglobin can transport 4O2.
- -4Fe=sat. oxy.
- -250 millions of hemoglobin in a red blood cell
- -one red blood cell can carry 1 billion mol of O2
formation of erythrosite
- 3 phases
- phase 1-Ribosome synthesis
- phase 2-Hemoglobin accumulation
- phase 3-Ejection of nucleus
it takes 4 days to produce RBC from red bone marrow.
5-6 million/ml=red blood cell count
Formation of RBC
- negative feedback
- Hormone Erythropoietin made by kidneys
- When O2 is down, EPO targets red bone marrow to increase # of RBC, so O2 goes up
RBC life span
Then, they will be broken down by WBC in liver (Macrophages)
- leaves the body in the feces.
- -gives color to stool.
- -If bilirubin doesn't leave can cause Jaundice
- -bilirubin buildup in tissues causes yellowing of the skin.
HbA vs HbF Physiologic Jaundice
- HbF-fetal hemoglobin.
- -Stronger affinity for O2.
- -Important in fetus-blood is oxygen poor
- HbA- adult hemoglobin
- -HbF broken down and new cells with HbA
- -RBC destruction produces excess bilirubin into bile
- -Yellowing of skin and eyes
- -"bili lights"
formation of leukocytes
- -least abundant-less than 1%
- -make heparin-anticocigulant
- -releases histamines-allergic reaction, inflammation
- -typically live about 12 hours
- -the most abundant 54-62%
- -function-bacteria slayers
- -Lifespan is months
- -fight viruses
- -monocyte indicates viral infection. Heart shaped nucleus.
- -Second most abundant of leukocytes
- -T cells-made in thymus gland under Thymosin effect
- -B cells
- -blood test
- -count each type of leukocyte
- -use to detect problem
cells divide and don't do anything
Platelets or thrombocytes
- -fragmented pieces of cells; not true cells
- -involved in blood clotting
don't know where it's made. Involved in blood clotting.
- -secrete serotonin
- -platelet plug
- -secretes procoagulant
- -initiates fibrinolysis-fall off
- -secretes chemicals to attract Neu. (bac) and Mono (virus)
- -Internalized and destroy bacteria
- -Secretes growth factors-maintain and repair blood vessels
- Platelets tend to stick together
- The stoppage of blood flow
- 3 steps
- 1) Blodd vessel spasm. Vascular spasm serotonin (platelets muscle contract) vasoconstriction
- 2) Platelet plug-sticky-rough surface
- 3) Coagulation-clot
We have to have 13 clotting factors. Ca, Fibrinogen
- -clotting factors
- -severe burns
- -accumulation fat
- -blood pooling-need to move
- -physical blows
- -vaso constriction-squeezing b.v. increases blood clotting
- -smooth vessel walls
- -movement of blood
Human blood groups
- -Over 30 different blood groups
- -ABO/Rh most common
- -Blood type determine by presence or absence of antigen (A or B proteins) on surface of RBC membrane
- -Genetically determined-can never be changed
Type A blood
A antigen on surface of RBC membrane
Type B blood
B antigen on surface of RBC membrane
Type AB blood
A and B antigen on surface of RBC membrane
Type O blood
No A nor B antigen on surface of RBC membrane
- -Found in plasma
- -A and B antibodies are pre-formed during prenatal development.
- -Make opposite antibody to antigen on RBC membrane
Type A blood antibodies
have antibodies B in plasma
Type B blood antibodies
have antibodies A in plasma
Type AB blood antibodies
have no antibodies in plasma
Type O blood antibodies
have both antibodies A and B in plasma
interaction between antigen and antibodies when given wrong blood type.
A deficiency of red blood cells, or a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin they contain
Five types of WBC