Lecture test 3

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melissauri
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Lecture test 3
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2013-03-17 23:55:44
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chapter 12 blood
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chapter 12 blood
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  1. Hematology
    study of blood
  2. Functions of blood
    Regulation-body temp, H2O balance, pH balance

    Distribution-transports O2 and Co2, all hormones, glucose, and other chemicals

    Protection-WBC fighting invaders. Hemostasis=blood clotting (protects you from losing all that blood)
  3. Characteristics of blood
    • Volume=6 liters
    • red
    • salty-due to Na and other electrolytes
    • sticky-protein in blood
    • heavier than H2O
    • hypertonic to the tissue
    • Ph 7.35-7.45
    • specific gravity
  4. Hematocrit
    Percentage of RBC in total volume of blood.

    about 45% in males (higher than females)
  5. "formed elements" of the blood
    cells (red and white) and platelets
  6. Plasma of blood
    liquid portion of the blood
  7. hematopoiesis
    formation of blood cells

    in adults, stem cells are in flat bones
  8. Blood composition
    • 45% red blood cells
    • 1% white blood cells and platelets
    • 55% plasma
  9. Plasma composition
    • Proteins (7%)
    • 60% Albumin
    • 36% Globulins-gamma immuno antibodies-made by WBC for defense
    • 4% Fibrinogen-blood clotting
    • Gases (<1%)
    • 1% N2, O2, CO2

    * proteins made by liver
  10. Plasma
    is a complex mixture of water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, and cellular wastes.

    • 92% water
    • 7% proteins
    • 1% electrolytes, wastes, gases, and nutrients, vitamins, and hormones.
  11. myeloid s cells
    develops all cells except the lymphocyte. Lymphocyte comes from Lymphoid.
  12. Erythrocyte function
    • transport oxygen
    • transport CO2
  13. Erythrocyte structure
    • -biconcave disc
    • -anucleate (no nucleus)
    • -Hemoglobin (hem, globins, HbA vs HbF)
  14. Hemoglobin structure
    • -2 chains=146 a.a./2 chains=141 a.a
    • -574 amino acids in hemoglobin
    • -heme-located in the center. it's what attracts O2
    • -One mol. of hemoglobin can transport 4O2.
    • -4Fe=sat. oxy.
    • -250 millions of hemoglobin in a red blood cell
    • -one red blood cell can carry 1 billion mol of O2
  15. Erythropoiesis
    formation of erythrosite

    • 3 phases
    • phase 1-Ribosome synthesis
    • phase 2-Hemoglobin accumulation
    • phase 3-Ejection of nucleus

    it takes 4 days to produce RBC from red bone marrow.

    5-6 million/ml=red blood cell count
  16. Formation of RBC
    • negative feedback
    • Hormone Erythropoietin made by kidneys
    • When O2 is down, EPO targets red bone marrow to increase # of RBC, so O2 goes up
  17. RBC life span
    120 days

    Then, they will be broken down by WBC in liver (Macrophages)
  18. bilirubin
    • leaves the body in the feces.
    • -gives color to stool.
    • -If bilirubin doesn't leave can cause Jaundice
    • -bilirubin buildup in tissues causes yellowing of the skin.
  19. HbA vs HbF Physiologic Jaundice
    • HbF-fetal hemoglobin.
    • -Stronger affinity for O2.
    • -Important in fetus-blood is oxygen poor

    • HbA- adult hemoglobin
    • -HbF broken down and new cells with HbA
    • -RBC destruction produces excess bilirubin into bile
    • -Yellowing of skin and eyes
    • -"bili lights"
  20. Leukopoiesis
    formation of leukocytes
  21. Basophil
    • -least abundant-less than 1%
    • -make heparin-anticocigulant
    • -releases histamines-allergic reaction, inflammation
    • -Granulocyte
  22. Eosinophil
    • -1-3%
    • -parasites
    • -typically live about 12 hours
    • -Granulocyte
  23. Neutrophil
    • -the most abundant 54-62%
    • -function-bacteria slayers
    • -Granulocytes
  24. Granulocytes
    • Neutrophil
    • Basophil
    • Eosinophil
  25. Agranulocytes
    • Monocyte
    • Lymphocyte
  26. Monocyte
    • -3-9%
    • -Lifespan is months
    • -fight viruses
    • -monocyte indicates viral infection. Heart shaped nucleus.
  27. Lymphocyte
    • -33%
    • -Second most abundant of leukocytes
    • -T cells-made in thymus gland under Thymosin effect
    • -B cells
  28. DIFFerential
    • -blood test
    • -count each type of leukocyte
    • -use to detect problem
  29. Leukemia
    cells divide and don't do anything
  30. Platelets or thrombocytes
    • -fragmented pieces of cells; not true cells
    • -involved in blood clotting
    • -clot=thrombus
  31. thrombopoiesis
    don't know where it's made. Involved in blood clotting.
  32. Platelet function
    • -secrete serotonin
    • -platelet plug
    • -secretes procoagulant
    • -initiates fibrinolysis-fall off
    • -secretes chemicals to attract Neu. (bac) and Mono (virus)
    • -Internalized and destroy bacteria
    • -Secretes growth factors-maintain and repair blood vessels
    • Platelets tend to stick together
  33. Hemostasis
    • The stoppage of blood flow
    • 3 steps
    • 1) Blodd vessel spasm. Vascular spasm serotonin (platelets muscle contract) vasoconstriction
    • 2) Platelet plug-sticky-rough surface
    • 3) Coagulation-clot

    We have to have 13 clotting factors. Ca, Fibrinogen
  34. Pro-coagulant agents-enhance
    • -clotting factors
    • -severe burns
    • -accumulation fat
    • -blood pooling-need to move
    • -physical blows
    • -vaso constriction-squeezing b.v. increases blood clotting
    • -cancer
  35. Anti-coagulant agents
    • -Aspirin
    • -heparin
    • -smooth vessel walls
    • -movement of blood
    • -vasodilation
  36. Human blood groups
    • -Over 30 different blood groups
    • -ABO/Rh most common
    • -Blood type determine by presence or absence of antigen (A or B proteins) on surface of RBC membrane
    • -Genetically determined-can never be changed
  37. Type A blood
    A antigen on surface of RBC membrane
  38. Type B blood
    B antigen on surface of RBC membrane
  39. Type AB blood
    A and B  antigen on surface of RBC membrane
  40. Type O blood
    No A nor B antigen on surface of RBC membrane
  41. Antibodies
    • -Found in plasma
    • -A and B antibodies are pre-formed during prenatal development.
    • -Make opposite antibody to antigen on RBC membrane
  42. Type A blood antibodies
    have antibodies B in plasma
  43. Type B blood antibodies
    have antibodies A in plasma
  44. Type AB blood antibodies
    have no antibodies in plasma
  45. Type O blood antibodies
    have both antibodies A and B in plasma
  46. agglutination
    interaction between antigen and antibodies when given wrong blood type.
  47. Anemia
    A deficiency of red blood cells, or a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin they contain
  48. Five types of WBC
    • -Neutrophils
    • -Eosinophils
    • -Basophils
    • -Monocytes
    • -Lymphocytes

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