bio test 2

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bio test 2
2013-03-22 01:45:33
biology cells

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  1. lysosomes and centrioles are not found in what what kind of cells
  2. plants cells have what that animal cells dont
    central vacuole, chloroplasts, & rigid cell wall
  3. Selective permeability is what
    when the plasma membrane controls the movement of molecules into and out of cell
  4. plasma membrane is made of
    lipids, proteins, some carbohydrates, phospholipids
  5. phospholipids have
    • 2 fatty acids
    • 1 glycerol
    • 1 phosphate
  6. amphipathic is
    hydrophilic & hydrophobic
  7. Phospholipids make up a two- layer sheet called
    phospholipid bilayer.

    • hydrophobic region faces out
    • hydrophilic in. allows cells to exist in watery environment
  8. the nucleus has
    complex proteins and DNA called chromatin( which makes up chromosomes)
  9. the nuclear envelope is a double membrane  that..

    it is attached to a network of membranes called..
    allows materials to flow in and out.

    attached to endoplasmic reticulum.
  10. ribosomes are involved in the cells..

    ribosomes are attached to..
    protein synthesis.

    ER & associated with nuclear envelope
  11. the endomembrane system includes
    Golgi app., plasma membrane, vacuoles, lysosomes, end. reticulum
  12. components of the endomembrane system communicate via
  13. smooth ER lacks...

    rough ER lines outer surface of..
    attached ribosomes

    lines the outer surface of membranes
  14. enzymes made in the smooth ER are involved in the synthesis of...
    lipids, oils, phospholipids, and steroids
  15. rough ER makes more membrane for itself and proteins destined for secretion,,

    once proteins are synthesised, they are transported in..
    vesicles to other parts
  16. ER sends product through ____ to golgi apparatus
    transport vesicles
  17. A lysosome is a membrane sack containing..
    digestive enzymes produced by the ER and sent to golgi app.
  18. a lysosome does what
    it removes and recycles damaged parts of a cell
  19. vacuoles are membraneous sacs that are found in many cells that...
    perform a variety of functions: pigment, to expel water..
  20. cellular respiration (conversion of glucose and lipids/ food to ATP) happens where
    mitochondria of eukaryotic cell
  21. photosynthesising organelles of plants
  22. what are the parts of a chloroplast?
    thylakoids, grana, stroma
  23. what 3 kinds of fibers make up the cytoskeleton
    microfilaments- shape and motility

    intermediate- shape and anchor organelles

    mictrotubules- shape & act as track for motor protein
  24. cillia & flagella are made of mictrotubules wrapped in plasma membrane..and move by
    bending motor proteins called dynein arms
  25. when cells synthesize they secret..
    ECM -- composed of fibers of collagen

    ECM attaches through proteins
  26. What cell has a rigid wall

    ( plant cells have junction called plasmodesmata to serve as cell communication)
  27. cells communicate through junctions
    • tight junc.- prevent leakage
    • anchoring- fasten cells together into sheets
    • gap- channels that allow molecules to flow between cells
  28. phospholipids and proteins make up what
    membranes/ fluid mosaic
  29. phospholipids (unsaturated fatty acids) have kinks because they prevent them from
    packing tightly together, keeping them liquid
  30. cholesterol helps _____ keep liquid/ permeable wedged into the bilayer.
  31. 3 substances that move through lipid protein of membrane
    • 1- oxygen
    • 2- carbon dioxide
    • 3- only hydrophobic mole.
  32. Integrins attach to the _________, and the membrane/ cytoskeleton because they
    extracellular matrix

    create stronger framework (they are proteins w/strength)
  33. Glycoproteins in the membrane have the purpose as
    identification tags

    (carbohydrates from the extra cell matrix involved)
  34. membranes exhibit selective permeability.

    nonpolar molecules ...

    polar molecules ...
    Chemical facilitators!!

    nonpolar (carbon dioxide & oxygen)- cross easily

    polar (glucose & sugars)- do not cross easy
  35. What spontaneously assembles into simple membranes

    (formation of a membrane was a critical step in evolution)
  36. Movement from high to low concentrations
  37. passive transport is when ___ energy is required
    water from high to low
  39. isotonic
    concentration of solute same on both sides
  40. tonicity
    ability of a solution to cause a cell to lose/ gain water.     Quantity of solute

    dependent on the concentration of a non penetrating solute on both sides of membrane
  41. higher concentration of solute in cell

    ( less solute, more water)
  42. concentration of solute higher outside cell

    ( more solute, less water)
  43. lysed
  44. plasmolyzed
    membrane shriveled/ decreases
  45. Active transport
    the mechanism for moving a solute against its concentration gradient ~ requires ATP energy ~~ it alters shape of membrane protein through phosphorylation using ATP.
  46. energy processing happens in the ______ of the animal cell and the ____________ in the plant cell.


    ATP (adenosine), triphosphate-- occur in these organs