bio test 2
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lysosomes and centrioles are not found in what what kind of cells
plants cells have what that animal cells dont
central vacuole, chloroplasts, & rigid cell wall
Selective permeability is what
when the plasma membrane controls the movement of molecules into and out of cell
plasma membrane is made of
lipids, proteins, some carbohydrates, phospholipids
- 2 fatty acids
- 1 glycerol
- 1 phosphate
hydrophilic & hydrophobic
Phospholipids make up a two- layer sheet called
- hydrophobic region faces out
- hydrophilic in. allows cells to exist in watery environment
the nucleus has
complex proteins and DNA called chromatin( which makes up chromosomes)
the nuclear envelope is a double membrane that..
it is attached to a network of membranes called..
allows materials to flow in and out.
attached to endoplasmic reticulum.
ribosomes are involved in the cells..
ribosomes are attached to..
ER & associated with nuclear envelope
the endomembrane system includes
Golgi app., plasma membrane, vacuoles, lysosomes, end. reticulum
components of the endomembrane system communicate via
smooth ER lacks...
rough ER lines outer surface of..
lines the outer surface of membranes
enzymes made in the smooth ER are involved in the synthesis of...
lipids, oils, phospholipids, and steroids
rough ER makes more membrane for itself and proteins destined for secretion,,
once proteins are synthesised, they are transported in..
vesicles to other parts
ER sends product through ____ to golgi apparatus
A lysosome is a membrane sack containing..
digestive enzymes produced by the ER and sent to golgi app.
a lysosome does what
it removes and recycles damaged parts of a cell
vacuoles are membraneous sacs that are found in many cells that...
perform a variety of functions: pigment, to expel water..
cellular respiration (conversion of glucose and lipids/ food to ATP) happens where
mitochondria of eukaryotic cell
photosynthesising organelles of plants
what are the parts of a chloroplast?
thylakoids, grana, stroma
what 3 kinds of fibers make up the cytoskeleton
microfilaments- shape and motility
intermediate- shape and anchor organelles
mictrotubules- shape & act as track for motor protein
cillia & flagella are made of mictrotubules wrapped in plasma membrane..and move by
bending motor proteins called dynein arms
when cells synthesize they secret..
ECM -- composed of fibers of collagen
ECM attaches through proteins
What cell has a rigid wall
( plant cells have junction called plasmodesmata to serve as cell communication)
cells communicate through junctions
- tight junc.- prevent leakage
- anchoring- fasten cells together into sheets
- gap- channels that allow molecules to flow between cells
phospholipids and proteins make up what
membranes/ fluid mosaic
phospholipids (unsaturated fatty acids) have kinks because they prevent them from
packing tightly together, keeping them liquid
cholesterol helps _____ keep liquid/ permeable wedged into the bilayer.
3 substances that move through lipid protein of membrane
- 1- oxygen
- 2- carbon dioxide
- 3- only hydrophobic mole.
Integrins attach to the _________, and the membrane/ cytoskeleton because they
create stronger framework (they are proteins w/strength)
Glycoproteins in the membrane have the purpose as
(carbohydrates from the extra cell matrix involved)
membranes exhibit selective permeability.
nonpolar molecules ...
polar molecules ...
nonpolar (carbon dioxide & oxygen)- cross easily
polar (glucose & sugars)- do not cross easy
What spontaneously assembles into simple membranes
(formation of a membrane was a critical step in evolution)
Movement from high to low concentrations
passive transport is when ___ energy is required
water from high to low
concentration of solute same on both sides
ability of a solution to cause a cell to lose/ gain water. Quantity of solute
dependent on the concentration of a non penetrating solute on both sides of membrane
higher concentration of solute in cell
( less solute, more water)
concentration of solute higher outside cell
( more solute, less water)
membrane shriveled/ decreases
the mechanism for moving a solute against its concentration gradient ~ requires ATP energy ~~ it alters shape of membrane protein through phosphorylation using ATP.
energy processing happens in the ______ of the animal cell and the ____________ in the plant cell.
ATP (adenosine), triphosphate-- occur in these organs
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