MIC 541 - Lecture 18

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MIC 541 - Lecture 18
2013-03-22 12:45:56
MIC 541 Lecture 18 Creighton Pharmacy

MIC 541 - Lecture 18, Creighton Pharmacy
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  1. 3 Gram-Positive Bacilli
    • 1.  Corynebacterium diphtheriae           
    • 2.  Listeria monocytogenes
    • 3.  Bacillus sp including anthrax
  2. Corynebacterium Configuration
    –V, Y or Chinese letters letter clumps
  3. Corynebacterium Features
    • Non-spore
    • Small club-shaped rods
    • Nonmotile
    • Ubiquitous–colonize skin
    • uro and gastro- intestinal tract, upper respiratory system
    • Opportunists
  4. Corynebacterium Shape
    •Small club-shaped rods
  5. Corynebacterium motility
  6. Corynebacterium Location
    • Skin
    • Uro and gastro- intestinal tract
    • Upper respiratory system
  7. Corynebacterium diphtheriae transmission
    person to person
  8. Corynebacterium diphtheriae Carried/Maintained in:
    asymptomatic oropharynx or skin carriage
  9. Corynebacterium diphtheriae resovoir:
  10. Corynebacterium diphtheriae Immunization effects:
    Reduces incidence in young
  11. Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes:
    Respiratory diptheria
  12. Corynebacterium diphtheriae has delayed onset of symptoms of:
    2-6 days
  13. Corynebacterium diphtheriae muliplies locally in the:
  14. Corynebacterium diphtheriae creates sudden onset of repiratory diptheria symptoms including:
    • sore throat
    • malaise
    • exudative pharyngitis
    • low grade fever
    • pseudomembrane
  15. Pseudomembrane of Respiratory diptheria is firmly attached in the:
  16. Systemic respiratory diptheria symptoms are caused by:
    Diptheria toxin
  17. Untreated Respiratory Diptheria can lead to:
    Cardiac and Respiratory Collapse
  18. Diptheria toxin mainly targets:
    Cardiac and Nervous tissue
  19. Diptheria Toxin Creates Deleterious effects by:
    Blocking host cell protein Synthesis
  20. Diptheria toxin is produced by the:
  21. B-phage is:
  22. B-phage codes for:
    Diptheria toxin
  23. True/False: Lytic is stage required for release of Diptheria toxin?
  24. The Diptheria Toxin Fragments/Sites are:
    A, B, T and P site
  25. A-fragment of Diptheria toxin is the:
    Active fragment
  26. B-fragment of Diptheria toxin is the:
    • Binding to HB-EGF
    • (heparin binding epidermal growth factor)
  27. T fragment of Diptheria Toxin
  28. P-site of Diptheria toxin is the:
    Proteolytic cleavage to release the A fragment
  29. Diptheria toxin is an:
  30. Diptheria toxin enzyme type is:
    • ADP-ribosylating exotoxin
    • (ADP-ribosyltransferase)
  31. Diptheria toxin enzymatic action is:
    Transfers ADP-ribose from NAD+ to Elongation Factor II
  32. Diptheria toxin enzymatic action leads to:
    Halting protein synthesis of host cell and death of host cell
  33. Pharyngeal inflammation and pseduomembrane are symptoms of:
    Corynebacterium Diptheriae infection causing Respiratory Diptheria
  34. Corynbacterium aside from pharygeal symptoms can cause:
    Localized Ulcerative Cutaneous Lesions
  35. Corynebacterium Diptheriae is diagnosed by
    Elek test ( cultures and tests for tox+)
  36. Elek test positive result is indicated by:
    toxin/antitoxin form X shaped lines of percipitate.
  37. Elek test is performed by
    streaking a line of cultured bacteria perpendicular to an antitoxin soaked filter paper and incubating for 18-48 hours
  38. Pharmeceutical treatment for Diptheria
    Immediate antibiotics (penicillin or erythromycin) and antitoxin
  39. Diptheria prevention
    Immunization with Diptheria toxoid and Prophylactic Antibiotics
  40. Non-Pharmaceutical treatment of Diptheria
    Maintain open airway and isolate patient (for oropharyngeal). Treat contacts prophylactically
  41. Listeria monocytogenes bacteria type:
    Gram-positive (only G+ with endotoxin)
  42. Unique feature of Listeria Monocytogenes
    G+ with Endotoxin
  43. Listeria Monocytogenes Features:
    • •Gram-positive/the only G+ with endotoxin
    • •Non-spore-forming
    • •Facultative anaerobe
    • •Coccobacillus (cigar shape)/bacillus
    • •Infects neonates, elderly, pregnant women, immunocompromised patients
    • •Intracellular pathogen
  44. Listeria Monocytogenes forms spores (True/False)
    • False:
    • •Non-spore-forming
  45. Listeria monocytogenes metabolism
    Facultative Anaerobe
  46. Listeria monocytogenes Shape:
    Coccobacillus (cigar shape)/bacillus
  47. Listeria Monocytogenes primarily infects:
    • Infects neonates
    • Elderly
    • Pregnant women
    • Immunocompromised patients
  48. Listeria Monocytogenes is an Extracellular pathogen (True/False):
    • False
    • Intracellular pathogen
  49. Listeria Monocytogenes is resistant to:
    Cold and Salt
  50. Listeria Monocytogenes can grow in Temperatures as low as:
    4º C
  51. Listeria Monocytogenes is associated with outbreaks in:
    Dairy Products and Cheese
  52. Listeria causes ____________ in neonates and adults with impaired cell mediated immunity
    Septicemia and Meningitis
  53. Listeria Monocytogenes causes _____________ in pregnant women
    perinatal infections
  54. Perinatal infections of Listeria Monocytogenes can cause:
    • Abortion
    • Still Birth
    • Premature Birth
  55. There is no vaccine available for Listeria Monocytogenes (True/False)
  56. Listeria Monocytogenes is pharmaceutically treated with:
    penicillin or ampicillin alone or with gentamicin
  57. There are what types of tests availabale to identify Listeria Monocytogenes?
    Biochemical and Serological
  58. Serological is:
     Diagnostic examination of blood serum
  59. Listeria Monocytogenes causes ___________ in adults.
    • influenza-like illness
    • primary bacteremia
    • meningitis
  60. Bacillus Species morphology is:
    Gram-positive rods (bacilli)
  61. Anthrax can be identified by
    Flourescent capsule satian or India Ink Capsule Stain
  62. Bacillus is or is not spore forming?
    Is Spore forming
  63. Bacillus metabolism is:
  64. Bacillus Anthracis colony Morphology
    "Medusa Head"
  65. Humans are exposed to anthrax via:
    soil and animal skins
  66. Anthrax is also called
    Woolsorters disease
  67. North American Anthrax incidence is small due to:
    Vaccination of Domestic Animals
  68. Pulmonary Anthrax occurs due to:
    • inhalation of spores
    • the spores than cause vegitative cells in the lungs
  69. Virulence factors of Anthrax
    antiphagocytic capsule and exotoxin
  70. Cutaneous Anthrax occurs do to:
    localized/spores enter abrasions in skin usually due to conact with wool, bone, hair, and hide that enters through abrasions
  71. Cutaneous Anthrax can be spread by:
  72. Cutaneous Anthrax is localized or systemic?
  73. Most common form of Anthrax is:
    Cutaneous Anthrax (95%)
  74. Where must infecting cells be to cause Cutaneous Anthrax?
    Under the skin
  75. Cutaneous anthrax symptom:
    Sall painless eschar with edema forms
  76. Untreated Cutaneous Anthrax causes death in:
  77. Treated Anthrax causes death in:
    Almost none, very rare
  78. Forms of Anthrax Infection
    • Cutaneous
    • Inhalation
    • Gastrointestinal
  79. Gastrointestinal Anthrax Occurs from:
    Eating infected Meat
  80. Gastrointestinal Anthrax causes:
    Fatal Septicemia
  81. Gastrointestinal Anthrax causes septicemia by:
    Growing in the bowel and crossing the intestinal barrier.
  82. Symptoms of Inhalation Anthrax
    Mediastinal Widening
  83. Mediastinal Widening is determined by:
  84. mortality rate of intestinal Anthrax
    50-100% despite treatment
  85. Intestinal Anthrax Symptoms:
    • generalized toxemia
    • fever
    • acute gastroenteritis
    • vomiting
    • bloody diarrhea
  86. Bowl Escelar of Intestinal is similar to:
    cutaneous lesions of cutaneous nathrax
  87. Anthrax Toxin Componants include:
    • PA = protective antigen
    • LF = lethal factor = Zn dependent protease that induces cytokines
    • EF = adenylate cyclase
  88. Anthrax PA component is:
    Protective Antigen
  89. Anthrax toxin LA factor =
    Lethal Factor = zinc dependant protease that induces Cytokines
  90. EF component of Anthrax toxin =
    Adenylate Cyclase
  91. LA + PF anthrax toxin components combine to form:
    Lathal Activity
  92. EF +PA anthrax toxin components combine to produce:
  93. EF + LF Anthrax components combine to produce
  94. PA + LF + EF anthrax factors combine to form:
    lethality, edema and necrosis
  95. Pharmaceutical treatment of Bioterrorism Anthrax for Adults:
    • Ciprofloxacin 400mg q12h
    • OR
    • Doxycycline 100mg q12h
  96. Anthrax Vaccine name:
  97. Anthrax Vaccine is:
    Cell free filtrate of Bacillus Anthracis Culture
  98. True/False AVA contains whole cells
  99. AVA cultures are prepared from:
    toxigenic encapsulated strain
  100. AVA contains which component of Anthrax toxin?
    PA adsorbed to Aluminum Hydroxide (amphogel)
  101. Athrax vaccine is Adsorbed True or False?
  102. Anthrax vaccine is injected how?
  103. Anthrax injection schedule is:
    0,2,4 weeks. bosster at 6,12, and 18 months
  104. AVA is made by many manufacturers True/False?
    False, only one
  105. Bacillus Cereus causes
    Enterotoxin mediated food poisoning
  106. Spores of Bacillus Cereus can withstand heating True/False
  107. After heating B. Cereus spores can:
    germinate, multiply and secrete exotoxin
  108. B. Cereus is associated with outbreaks in ______________.
  109. B Cereus can be identified by
    Malachite green spore stain
  110. Food poisning by B. Cereus usually occurs because
    heat treatments and pasturization do not kill endospores that germinate if not refrigerated
  111. What is “the” virulence factor of C. diphtheriae?
    Diptheria Toxin
  112. How does the β-phage relate to the virulence of C. diphtheriae? 
    β-phage is a lysogenic page that imparts the genetic information for Diptheria toxin
  113. What is the action of diphtheria toxin?
    Prevents host cell protein synthesis by transferring ADP-Ribose from NAD to Elongation Factor II
  114. What organism has a unique resistance to cold?  Grows in dairy products at 4º C?
    Listeria Monocytogenes
  115. Composition of the capsule of B. anthracis?
    The capsule is composed of glutamic acid