Psychology Test #3

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  1. How do we learn?
    We learn by association
  2. Once we reach adulthood, the brean is basically fixed and does not change? T or F
  3. Learning
    Any relatively ermanent change in an organism's behavior or thought as a result of experience.
  4. Habituation
    • Process by which we resond less strongly over time to reeated stimuli.
    • Habitual
  5. Sensitization
    Process by which we resond more strongly over time.
  6. Associative Learning
    • Learning to associate one stimulus with another.
    • Sea Slug- Eric Kandel-
  7. Ivan Pavlov
    Studying digestion in dogs
  8. Classical Conditioning
    A form of learning in which an organism comes to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that is associated with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response.
  9. Parts of Classical Conditioning
    UCS, UCR, CS, CR
  10. UCS- unconditioned stimulus
    Stimulus (biologically significant) that produces an automatic response
  11. UCR- unconditioned response
    Automatic response to a UCS that does not need to be learned.
  12. CS- conditioned stimulus
    Initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS through conditioning.
  13. CR- conditioned response
    • The behavior that is learned in response to the conditioned stimulus.
    • In most cases the CR is similar to the UCR but it is rarely identical to it.
  14. Phases of Classical Conditioning
    Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery
  15. Acquisition
    • Learning phase during which a CR is established.
    • It is the initial learning stage in which an association between neutral stimulus and UCS.
    • NS needs to come before the CS
    • The time between the two stimuli should be about half a second.
  16. Extinction
    Gradual decrease and elimination of the CR after the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS.
  17. Spontaneous Recovery
    • The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished CR.
    • The sudden reemergence of an extinguished CR after a delay in exposure to the CS.
    • Learning is not permanenty lost.
  18. Stimulus Generalization
    Reaction to a stimulus with the same response one has learned to give another, simular stimulus.
  19. Necessary Factors in Classical Conditioning
    • 1. The CS must be strong and distinctive enough for the subject to percieve it easily.
    • 2. The order in which the CS & UCS are presented- present CS just before the UCS.
    • 3. The amount of time between the occurence of the CS & the UCS -a fraction of a second and a few seconds.
    • 4. Conditionining is usually cummulative- each trail builds on the learners previous experience.
  20. Advertising
    Pairing sights and sounds of products to establish classically conditioned connections between their brands and positive emotions.
  21. Acquisition of fears example
    Little Albert
  22. Phobias
    • Intense fear
    • Classical conditioning also offers a way to get rid of phobia.
  23. Operant Conditioning
    The type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by punishment.
  24. Law of Effect
    • The principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely.
    • Behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences becomes less likely.
  25. Operent Chamber ( skinner box)
    A bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer like food/water. The bar or key is connected to devices that record the animal response.
  26. Reinforcement
    • Any event or outcome that strengthens the probability of a response or behavior.
    • It is encouragement
  27. Positive Reinforcement
    • Positive outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of behavior.
    • Adds something pleasant
  28. Negative Reinforcement
    • Removal of negative outcome or consequence of behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior.
    • Removes something unpleasant.
  29. Punishment
    • The outcome or consequence of a behavior that weakens or decreases the probability of a behavior.
    • Administers something unpleasant.
  30. Positive Punishment
    Give undesirable stimulus
  31. Negative punishment
    Take away desirable stimulus
  32. Shaping
    The operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through succesive approx.
  33. Fixed Ratio Schedule
    • Reinforces a response only after a specific number of responses.
    • Ex- piecework pay
  34. Variable ratio
    • Reinforces a response after an unpredictable # of responses.
    • Ex- Gambling, fishing
  35. Fixed- Interval
    • Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
    • Ex- studying only right before test
  36. Variable Interval
    • Reinforces a response at an unpredictable time.
    • Ex- pop quiz
  37. Intrinsic Motivation
    The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
  38. Extrinsic Motivation
    The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or punishments.
  39. CC vs OC
    • CC-   
    • Response
    • Automatic
    • Involuntary
    • Reward
    • Independent
    • Body System
    • Nervous

    • OC-
    • Voluntary
    • Dependent
    • Motor/ Skeletal
  40. Latent Learning
    Learning that isnt directly observable; we learn many thingsw/o showing them but until an incentive to demosrate.
  41. Observational Learning
    • Learning by watching others (models) w/o instruction or reinforcement.
    • Bandura- boo boo doll experiement.
  42. Insight Learning
    Subjects suddently "get" the solution to a problem.
  43. Memory
    • The retention of information over time.
    • The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrival of info.
  44. Repression
    Reason wh we dont remember things before 3/4
  45. Hippocampus
    • Neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories.
    • Not yet developed.
    • No interest in remembering the past
    • Infants have low sense of self.
  46. Encoding
    • Process of getting info into memory.
    • Keyboard
  47. Storage
    • Process of keeping or retaining encoded info over time.
    • Flashdrive
  48. Retrieval
    • Process of reactivation or reconstruction of info from memory storage.
    • Computer
  49. Sensory Memory
    • Immediate and very brief storage of perceptual info.
    • Holds detailed and literal of incoming info for 1/2 sec.
  50. Iconic Memory
  51. Echoic Memory
    Auditory/ hearing
  52. Short Term/ Working Memory
    • Retains info for limited duration and capacity.
    • 7 +- 2 pieces of info
    • Conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual- spatial info and of info retrieved from long-ter memory.
  53. Long- term memory
    • Relatively lasting or permament, limitless storehouse of info, knowledge, facts, experience, and skills we have acquired over life.
    • Capacity is large.
    • Can endure for decades.
  54. How does LTM differ from STM
    • LTM is large, limitless, permanent
    • STM- only remember magic # (7+-2) 20/30 sec
  55. Automatic Processing
    Unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, and frequency
  56. Effortful Processing
    Encoding that requires attention and concious effort.
  57. Memory Effects
    • Spacing
    • Serial Position
  58. What/How we encode
    • By Meaning
    • By Images
    • By Organization
  59. Mnemonics
    • Learning aids, strategies or devices that enhance recall.
    • They are techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices to help one remember material easily and quickly.
  60. Explicit (declarative) memory-
    • The process of recalling info intentionally
    • Hippocampus
  61. Semantic Memory
    Facts or Knowledge
  62. Episodic Memory
    Knowledge of events in our lives.
  63. Implicit memory
    • Not deliberately remembered.
    • Doesn't require conscious efforot
Card Set:
Psychology Test #3

Chapters 7 & 8!
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