Psychology Test #3
Card Set Information
Psychology Test #3
Chapters 7 & 8!
How do we learn?
We learn by association
Once we reach adulthood, the brean is basically fixed and does not change? T or F
Any relatively ermanent change in an organism's behavior or thought as a result of experience.
Process by which we resond less strongly over time to reeated stimuli.
Process by which we resond more strongly over time.
Learning to associate one stimulus with another.
Sea Slug- Eric Kandel-
Studying digestion in dogs
A form of learning in which an organism comes to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that is associated with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response.
Parts of Classical Conditioning
UCS, UCR, CS, CR
UCS- unconditioned stimulus
Stimulus (biologically significant) that produces an automatic response
UCR- unconditioned response
Automatic response to a UCS that does not need to be learned.
CS- conditioned stimulus
Initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS through conditioning.
CR- conditioned response
The behavior that is learned in response to the conditioned stimulus.
In most cases the CR is similar to the UCR but it is rarely identical to it.
Phases of Classical Conditioning
Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery
Learning phase during which a CR is established.
It is the initial learning stage in which an association between neutral stimulus and UCS.
NS needs to come before the CS
The time between the two stimuli should be about half a second.
Gradual decrease and elimination of the CR after the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS.
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished CR.
The sudden reemergence of an extinguished CR after a delay in exposure to the CS.
Learning is not permanenty lost.
Reaction to a stimulus with the same response one has learned to give another, simular stimulus.
Necessary Factors in Classical Conditioning
1. The CS must be strong and distinctive enough for the subject to percieve it easily.
2. The order in which the CS & UCS are presented- present CS just before the UCS.
3. The amount of time between the occurence of the CS & the UCS -a fraction of a second and a few seconds.
4. Conditionining is usually cummulative- each trail builds on the learners previous experience.
Pairing sights and sounds of products to establish classically conditioned connections between their brands and positive emotions.
Acquisition of fears example
Classical conditioning also offers a way to get rid of phobia.
The type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by punishment.
Law of Effect
The principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely.
Behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences becomes less likely.
Operent Chamber ( skinner box)
A bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer like food/water. The bar or key is connected to devices that record the animal response.
Any event or outcome that strengthens the probability of a response or behavior.
It is encouragement
Positive outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of behavior.
Adds something pleasant
Removal of negative outcome or consequence of behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior.
Removes something unpleasant.
The outcome or consequence of a behavior that weakens or decreases the probability of a behavior.
Administers something unpleasant.
Give undesirable stimulus
Take away desirable stimulus
The operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through succesive approx.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
Reinforces a response only after a specific number of responses.
Ex- piecework pay
Reinforces a response after an unpredictable # of responses.
Ex- Gambling, fishing
Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
Ex- studying only right before test
Reinforces a response at an unpredictable time.
Ex- pop quiz
The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or punishments.
CC vs OC
Learning that isnt directly observable; we learn many thingsw/o showing them but until an incentive to demosrate.
Learning by watching others (models) w/o instruction or reinforcement.
Bandura- boo boo doll experiement.
Subjects suddently "get" the solution to a problem.
The retention of information over time.
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrival of info.
Reason wh we dont remember things before 3/4
Neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories.
Not yet developed.
No interest in remembering the past
Infants have low sense of self.
Process of getting info into memory.
Process of keeping or retaining encoded info over time.
Process of reactivation or reconstruction of info from memory storage.
Immediate and very brief storage of perceptual info.
Holds detailed and literal of incoming info for 1/2 sec.
Short Term/ Working Memory
Retains info for limited duration and capacity.
7 +- 2 pieces of info
Conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual- spatial info and of info retrieved from long-ter memory.
Long- term memory
Relatively lasting or permament, limitless storehouse of info, knowledge, facts, experience, and skills we have acquired over life.
Capacity is large.
Can endure for decades.
How does LTM differ from STM
LTM is large, limitless, permanent
STM- only remember magic # (7+-2) 20/30 sec
Unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, and frequency
Encoding that requires attention and concious effort.
What/How we encode
Learning aids, strategies or devices that enhance recall.
They are techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices to help one remember material easily and quickly.
Explicit (declarative) memory-
The process of recalling info intentionally
Facts or Knowledge
Knowledge of events in our lives.
Not deliberately remembered.
Doesn't require conscious efforot