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How do we learn?
We learn by association
Once we reach adulthood, the brean is basically fixed and does not change? T or F
Any relatively ermanent change in an organism's behavior or thought as a result of experience.
- Process by which we resond less strongly over time to reeated stimuli.
Process by which we resond more strongly over time.
- Learning to associate one stimulus with another.
- Sea Slug- Eric Kandel-
Studying digestion in dogs
A form of learning in which an organism comes to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that is associated with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response.
Parts of Classical Conditioning
UCS, UCR, CS, CR
UCS- unconditioned stimulus
Stimulus (biologically significant) that produces an automatic response
UCR- unconditioned response
Automatic response to a UCS that does not need to be learned.
CS- conditioned stimulus
Initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS through conditioning.
CR- conditioned response
- The behavior that is learned in response to the conditioned stimulus.
- In most cases the CR is similar to the UCR but it is rarely identical to it.
Phases of Classical Conditioning
Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery
- Learning phase during which a CR is established.
- It is the initial learning stage in which an association between neutral stimulus and UCS.
- NS needs to come before the CS
- The time between the two stimuli should be about half a second.
Gradual decrease and elimination of the CR after the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS.
- The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished CR.
- The sudden reemergence of an extinguished CR after a delay in exposure to the CS.
- Learning is not permanenty lost.
Reaction to a stimulus with the same response one has learned to give another, simular stimulus.
Necessary Factors in Classical Conditioning
- 1. The CS must be strong and distinctive enough for the subject to percieve it easily.
- 2. The order in which the CS & UCS are presented- present CS just before the UCS.
- 3. The amount of time between the occurence of the CS & the UCS -a fraction of a second and a few seconds.
- 4. Conditionining is usually cummulative- each trail builds on the learners previous experience.
Pairing sights and sounds of products to establish classically conditioned connections between their brands and positive emotions.
Acquisition of fears example
- Intense fear
- Classical conditioning also offers a way to get rid of phobia.
The type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by punishment.
Law of Effect
- The principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely.
- Behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences becomes less likely.
Operent Chamber ( skinner box)
A bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer like food/water. The bar or key is connected to devices that record the animal response.
- Any event or outcome that strengthens the probability of a response or behavior.
- It is encouragement
- Positive outcome or consequence of a behavior that strengthens the probability of behavior.
- Adds something pleasant
- Removal of negative outcome or consequence of behavior that strengthens the probability of the behavior.
- Removes something unpleasant.
- The outcome or consequence of a behavior that weakens or decreases the probability of a behavior.
- Administers something unpleasant.
Give undesirable stimulus
Take away desirable stimulus
The operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through succesive approx.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
- Reinforces a response only after a specific number of responses.
- Ex- piecework pay
- Reinforces a response after an unpredictable # of responses.
- Ex- Gambling, fishing
- Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
- Ex- studying only right before test
- Reinforces a response at an unpredictable time.
- Ex- pop quiz
The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or punishments.
CC vs OC
- CC- Response
- Body System
- Motor/ Skeletal
Learning that isnt directly observable; we learn many thingsw/o showing them but until an incentive to demosrate.
- Learning by watching others (models) w/o instruction or reinforcement.
- Bandura- boo boo doll experiement.
Subjects suddently "get" the solution to a problem.
- The retention of information over time.
- The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrival of info.
Reason wh we dont remember things before 3/4
- Neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories.
- Not yet developed.
- No interest in remembering the past
- Infants have low sense of self.
- Process of getting info into memory.
- Process of keeping or retaining encoded info over time.
- Process of reactivation or reconstruction of info from memory storage.
- Immediate and very brief storage of perceptual info.
- Holds detailed and literal of incoming info for 1/2 sec.
Short Term/ Working Memory
- Retains info for limited duration and capacity.
- 7 +- 2 pieces of info
- Conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual- spatial info and of info retrieved from long-ter memory.
Long- term memory
- Relatively lasting or permament, limitless storehouse of info, knowledge, facts, experience, and skills we have acquired over life.
- Capacity is large.
- Can endure for decades.
How does LTM differ from STM
- LTM is large, limitless, permanent
- STM- only remember magic # (7+-2) 20/30 sec
Unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, and frequency
Encoding that requires attention and concious effort.
What/How we encode
- By Meaning
- By Images
- By Organization
- Learning aids, strategies or devices that enhance recall.
- They are techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices to help one remember material easily and quickly.
Explicit (declarative) memory-
- The process of recalling info intentionally
Facts or Knowledge
Knowledge of events in our lives.
- Not deliberately remembered.
- Doesn't require conscious efforot