Environmental Science

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Author:
gskinner
ID:
208039
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Environmental Science
Updated:
2013-03-18 16:34:17
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Exam 2
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  1. 2 Kinds of Traits
    Genetic/Aquired
  2. Who discovered DNA
    Watson and Crick
  3. Chromosone
    • 23 pairs (46) in every somatic (body) cell
    • 23 Germ (sex) cells
  4. Gene
    part of DNA that contains code for every trait
  5. DNA
    • Double helix
    • "Rungs of a ladder"
    • A: Adenine + T: Thymine = 2
    • G: Guanine + C: Cytosine = 3
    • Phosphate/Glucose
  6. 2 Functions of DNA
    • 1. Duplicate or replicate
    • 2. Protein synthesis (how you grow)
    • Molecules are made up of amino acids
    • Radiation is #1 cause of mutation
    • Drugs is #2 cause of mutation
  7. Species
    • Organisms generally look alike
    • They can mate
    • They will produce fertile offspring
    • Homosapiens: 1 species
  8. Mutation
    change in the DNA code - Mutation causes the change and the environment decides if its a good change
  9. Gene pool
    survival of the fittest
  10. Natural selection
    Nature selects the organism with the best traits
  11. Speciation
    the formation of a new species from an existing species -> "Divergent Evolution"

    When they can no longer mate and produce fertile offspring, a need species has arisen
  12. 3 things needed for a new species
    • 1. A barrier to separate the gene pool
    • 2. Mutations: each one keeps the mutations that help them survive
    • 3. Time for organisms to become different
  13. Divergent Evolution
    One species changes and becomes more than one
  14. Gradualism
    slow evolution
  15. Punctioned Equilibrium
    Fast evolution
  16. Selective agent
    Decides who lives and who dies
  17. Extinction
    • 99% are gone
    • Lost biodiversity
    • Why care?
    • 1. Species are gone forever (genes eliminated from gene pool) Decreased diversity
    • 2. Food chain - food web collapse
    • 3. Medicines and food
    • 4. Aesthetics
  18. Classification of the Endangered Species Act of 1973
    • 1. Endangered
    • 2. Threatened
    • 3. Vulnerable
  19. Causes of Extinction
    • 1. Loss of habitat and food (climate change) - Passenger pigeon(ext.) Man shot them - Dusky seaside sparrow(ext) - lived by space shuttle - Bald eagle - DDT - Brown Pelican - DDT - Periwinkle - Parkinsons and lymphoma
    • 2. Introduction of exotics (FL #1-> environment and tourism) Kudzu - vine plant (grows several inches a day) - water hyaciath - water plant - clogging lakes - Zebra mussel - great lakes - American Chestnut - Tree fungus
  20. Biotic Potential
    The potential for organisms to produce new life if all environmental conditions are perfect - # of offspring we could produce
  21. Carry Capacity
    The maximum number of individuals that a certain ecosystem can support at any one time
  22. Limiting factors
    Those factors that limit a population from reaching its biotic potential - space, food, disease, predators, lack of oxygen
  23. Environmental resistance
    • the sum of all the limiting factors that control the size of the population - sigmoid population curve (s curve)
  24. Drosophila
    Fruit flies - Thomas Hunt Morgan - Genetics with FF
  25. Exponential Growth
    Double your population with each generation and then begins to level off
  26. Bacteria
    Polluted their environment - double every 20 minutes
  27. Mice
    Population growth slowed due to space
  28. Man
    • 100,000 years -> farm -> fight disease
    • chart looks like steps
    • Mexico - good farming techniques -> 80% more food -> more people -> more starvation
  29. Malthus
    "An essay on the principle of population"
  30. ZPG
    Zero Population Growth - Families limit children at 2 per family - leave your replacement
  31. Population decline in the USA
    • 1. Financial (cost of children)
    • 2. Women working -> no time to raise children
    • 3. High divorce rate -> 50% of the population
    • 4. Increase in marriage age
    • 5. Personal reasons (freedom, travel, etc)
    • 6. Children are a liability, not an asset - house size, work conflict
    • 7. Popularity of the 2 child family - ZPG - Availability of BC (PP) - Education
  32. 10 ways to keep birth rates down
    • 1. douche
    • 2. spermicides
    • 3. coitus interruptus
    • 4. condom
    • 5. rhythm 
    • 6. diaphram
    • 7. intrauterine device
    • 8. birth control pill
    • 9. sterilization
    • 10. abortion
  33. Mendel
    Father of Genetics - Austrian Monk - bred pea plants
  34. PKU
    • Recessive Genes
    • Aa + Aa = aa
    • increasing in human gene pool
  35. Sickle cell anemia
    • Body deprived of oxygen (aa)
    • Red Blood Cells = AA
    • Malaria - Environment - Misquitoes - Tropical
    • Natural selection = Aa
  36. Balanced Polymorphism
    • Blood Types (A-B-AB-O)
    • "Neutral" Genes - Numbers -> not going to kill you or help you
    • Remains constant from 1 generation to anther
    • No natural selection

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