Antihistamines, Decongestants, Antitussives, and Expectorants Drugs

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Antihistamines, Decongestants, Antitussives, and Expectorants Drugs
2013-03-18 16:19:58
Pharm test four

Pharm test four
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  1. Antihistamines Mechanism of Action
    Block histamine receptors (H1) on the surfaces of basophils and mast cells preventing the release of histamine
  2. Antihistamines Indications
    • Nasal allergies, allergic rhinitis, common cold
    • Allergic reactions, motion sickness, Parkinson’s disease, vertigo
    • Sleeping aid
  3. Histamines Contraindications
    • Drug allergy, narrow-angle glaucoma, cardiac disease, kidney disease, hypertension, bronchial asthma, COPD, peptic ulcer disease, seizure disorders, benign prostatic hyperplasia, pregnancy
    • Impaired liver function or renal insufficiency, lactating mothers
  4. Nasal decongestants Mechanism of actions
    • Shrink engorged nasal mucous membranes and relieve nasal stuffiness
    • Constrict the small arterioles that supply the upper respiratory tract
  5. Nasal steroids mechanism of action
    Aimed at the inflammatory response elicited by invading organisms
  6. Decongestants Indications
    Acute or chronic rhinitis, common cold, sinusitis, hay fever or other allergies
  7. Decongestants Contraindications
    Drug allergy, narrow-angle glaucoma, uncontrolled cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and prostatitis
  8. Decongestants Adverse Effects
    • Nervousness, insomnia, palpitations, tremor
    • Hypertension, headache, dizziness
  9. Antitussives (Opioid) Mechanism of Action
    suppress reflex through direct action on the cough center of the CNS
  10. Antitussives (Benzonatate) Mechanism of Action
    suppresses by anesthetizing stretch receptor cells in tract preventing reflex stimulation
  11. Antitussives Indications
    Primarily to stop cough reflex when cough is nonproductive and/or harmful
  12. Antitussives Contraindications
    Opioid dependence and risk for respiratory depression
  13. Antitussives (Benzonatate) adverse Effects
    Dizziness, headache, sedation, nausea, and others
  14. Antitussives (Dextromethorphan) Adverse Effects
    Dizziness, drowsiness, nausea
  15. Antitussives (Opioids) Adverse Effects
    Sedation, nausea, vomiting, lightheadedness, constipation
  16. Expectorants Mechanism of Action
    Reflex stimulation or direct stimulation of the secretory glands in the respiratory tract
  17. Expectorants Indications
    Common cold, bronchitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, pertussis, influenza, measles
  18. Expectorants Adverse Effects
    Nausea, vomiting, and gastric irritation