Bronchodilators and Other Respiratory Drugs

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Bronchodilators and Other Respiratory Drugs
2013-03-18 16:33:59
Pharm test four

Pharm test four
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  1. Bronchodilators Mechanism of Aciton
    •  Dilate by stimulating the beta2-adrenergic receptors
  2. Bronchodilators Indications
    Bronchial asthma, bronchitis, other pulmonary diseases
  3. Bronchodilator Contraindications
    uncontrolled cardiac dysrhythmias, and high risk of stroke
  4. Bronchodilator Adverse Effects
    Insomnia, restlessness, anorexia, cardiac simulation, hyperglycemia, tremor, vascular headache
  5. Anticholinergic Mechanism of Action
    Block acetylcholine receptors to prevent bronchoconstriction
  6. Anticholinergic Indications
    Prevention of the bronchospasm associated with chronic bronchitis or emphysema
  7. Anticholinergic Contraindications
    allergy to atropine or soy lecithin or peanuts, soybeans, or other legumes
  8. Anticholinergic Adverse Effects
    Dry mouth or throat, nasal congestion, heart palpitations, GI distress, urinary retention, increased intraocular pressure, headache, coughing, anxiety
  9. Xanthine Mechanism of Action
    • Increase the levels of energy-producing substance cAMP
    • Competitively inhibiting phosphodiestrerase, which is responsible for breaking down cAMP
  10. Xanthine Indications
    Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema
  11. Xanthine Contraindications
    uncontrolled cardiac dysrhythmias, seizures disorders, hyperthyroidism, and peptic ulcer
  12. Xanthine Adverse Effects
    • Nausea, vomiting, and anorexia
    • Sinus tachycardia, extrasystole, palpitations, ventricular dysrhythmias
  13. Leukotriene receptor antagonists Mechanism of action
    • First class- inhibits the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase which is necessary for leukotriene synthesis
    • Second class- binds to leukotriene receptor subtypes
  14. Leukotriene Indications
    • Prophylaxis and long term treatment of asthma in adults and children older than age 12
    • Montelukast is approved for use in children ages 2 and older, and for treatment of allergic rhinitis
  15. Leukotriene (Zileuton) Adverse Effects
    Headaches, dyspepsia, nausea, dizziness, insomnia, liver dysfunction
  16. Leukotriene (Zafirlukast) Adverse Effects
    headache, nausea, diarrhea, liver dysfunction
  17. Corticosteroids Mchanism of action
    • Stabilize membranes of cells that releases harmful bronchoconstricting substances
    • Increase responsiveness of bronchial smooth muscle to beta-adrenergic stimulation
    • Reduce inflammation and enhance activity of beta agonists
  18. Corticosteroids Indications
    Bronchospastic disorders that aren’t controlled by conventional bronchodilators
  19. Corticosteroids Contraindications
    Candida organism infection, systemic fungal infection
  20. Corticosteroids Adverse Effects
    Pharyngeal irritation, coughing, dry mouth, oral fungal infections