Test 3 Nurtition

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Marytaylor
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208064
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Test 3 Nurtition
Updated:
2013-03-19 21:07:44
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Carbohydrates Fiber Fat
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Carbohydrates, Fiber and Fat
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  1. Main purpose of CARBOHYDRATES
    To provide energy
  2. Classification of Carbohydrates
    • 1. Simple Sugars  
    • 2. Complex Sugars
    • 3. Trisaccharides
    • 4. Polysaccharides
  3. Define Simple Sugars.
    One molecule – easily broken down. Sugars that are easily broken down to be absorbed by the body.
  4. Other name and Examples of simple sugar
    • Monosaccharides
    • Example: Glucose & Fructose
  5. Define Complex Sugars
    Formed by combining 2 molecules of monosaccharides
  6. Other name and Examples of complex sugars.
    • Disaccharides
    • Example: Sucrose, Maltose & Lactose
  7. Trisaccharides – Consists of 1 molecule each of _______, ________ and _____________.
    Glucose, galactose and fructose
  8. Example of trisaccharide
    Raffinose
  9. Define Polysaccharides
    Made up of numerous molecules of simple sugars.
  10. Give example of Polysaccharides
    Example: Dextrin, starch, cellulose, glycogen
  11. Some digestion of carbohydrates occurs in the
    mouth by the enzyme _____________.
    Salivary amylase
  12. The primary site of digestion occurs in the
    intestine
  13. _______, ___________and __________are broken down to monosaccharides. They must be broken down to monosaccharides in order to be absorbed.
    Starch, glycogen and disaccharides
  14. Most of the carbohydrates in pet rations are
    absorbed as _______.
    glucose
  15. Absorbed _________and _________ are converted to glucose
    Galactose and fructose
  16. Entry of blood glucose into most body cells is
    dependent upon _______from the __________.
    • Insulin 
    • Pancreas
  17. Entry of glucose is not insulin dependent into
    • Red blood cells,
    • Cells of the liver and
    • Central nervous system
  18. Normal glucose value =
    80 – 120 mg/dl
  19. Define Hypoglycemia
    Decrease in blood glucose
  20. Hypoglycemia is caused by __________ may cause excessive _________ production which ___________blood glucose
    • Pancreatic dysfunction
    • insulin production
    • decreases
  21. Two animals that may be affected by hypoglycemia.
    • Heavily worked animals may utilize all the available blood glucose.
    • Some small breeds metabolize quickly and need constant replenishment of energy
  22. Signs of hypoglycemia
    Lethargic, dizzy
  23. Define Hyperglycemia
    Increase in blood glucose
  24. Cause of hyperglycemia
    Diabetes Mellitus
  25. What type of diabetes is common in dogs?
    Type I
  26. What type of diabetes is common in cats?
    Type II
  27. Deficiency in insulin production
    results in the following signs:
    • 1) Extreme weight loss – not getting fat storage
    • 2) Polyuria – extreme urination
    • 3) Polydipsia – drink lots of water
    • 4) Hyperglycemia, 
    • 5) Glucosuria – Glucose in urine
    • 6) Ketonemia – Ketones in blood
  28. Hyperglycemia is most commonly seen in:
    • middle aged (6-8 yrs)
    • obese
    • female dogs.
    • It may be somewhat hereditary.
  29. Most common breeds effected by hyperglycemia are
    • Schnauzers,
    • Cocker Spaniels and
    • Poodles.
  30. How do you diagnose hyperglycemia?
    Fasting Blood Glucose 
  31. Treatment for hyperglycemia
    • A fasting blood glucose of 200 diet and exercise to start.
    • SQ Insulin injections in shoulder or hip may be given by the owner. Uses small needle. Make sure client is comfortable giving injections.
    • Initially given every 2 weeks then 2 months may decrease the dosage.
  32. What two animals can digest fiber?
    Horses and ruminants
  33. Fiber is a term for 
    Carbohydrates whose bonds are resistant to the action of gastrointestinal enzymes
  34. The main fiber carbohydrates are:
    • 1. Cellulose
    • 2. Hemicellulose
    • 3. Pectin
    • 4. Lignin
  35. Cellulose forms the skeleton of most plant structures(tough outer covering of plant), can be digested by __________, but is indigestible by ______________.
    In ruminants is converted to ________ to be used as energy
    • ruminants
    • simple stomached animals 
    • fatty acids
  36. Hemicellulose
    second most abundant compound found in plants. Very dense to reduce fermentation in the gut
  37. Pectin - a __________within plant which may have a effect on controlling _______.
    • sugar polymer 
    • frothy bloat
  38. Lignin - an almost indigestible polysaccharide found in
    wood, hulls and straw
  39. The source of fiber in most pet foods is 
    cereal grains and milling by-products
  40. When bacteria break down fiber, fermentation occurs which produces ___and ___. Cell wall carbohydrates (______ and ______) can be partially digested and utilized by the _______ and extensively digested in the _____.  This is why ruminants are prone to condition of _______________.
    • heat and gas
    • cellulose and hemicellulose
    • non-ruminant 
    • ruminant 
    • bloat (Ruminal Tympany).
  41. Some of fibers well known effects are:
    • 1. prevention of constipation (most common)
    • 2. a bulking agent to promote colonic peristalsis – move through the digestive track
    • 3. water absorbing properties
    • 4. Increased fiber may reduce caloric intake while giving a full feeling
  42. Lack of Fiber in human diets has been associated  with such diseases as 
    • varicose veins
    • hemorrhoids
    • diverticulitis
    • colonic cancer and polyps
    • coronary artery disease
  43. Fiber may help to reduce the absorption of
    __________, ________and other _____ materials by speeding up intestinal transit therefore less time for absorption, by absorbing the toxin into the fecal more or diluting it by absorbing water.
    carcinogens, steroids and other toxic materials
  44. Commercial pet foods developed, most canned
    1950s
  45. Dry foods more predominate - Dry or extruded
    foods need increased carbohydrates to bind the ingredients
    1970s
  46. __% households  - one cat
    __% households – 2 or more
    • 34% 
    • 56% 
  47. 35% are obese due to
    Genetics, OVH/Orchiectomy, lifestyle, type and method of feeding
  48. Characteristics of Diabetes Mellitus
    • Hyperglycemia
    • Obesity
    • Genetic Predisposition
    • Poor diet
    • Hormonal abnormals
    • Pharmaceuticals
    • Gender
  49. Diabetes Mellitus in felines Affects:
    • Male – neutered,
    • Middle aged
    • Sedentary
    • Obese
  50. Which cat has a Genetic Predisposition to diabetes mellitus?
    Burmese
  51. Symptoms of feline diabetes mellitus?
    • Polyuria
    • Polydipsia
    • Polyphagia
    • Weight loss or gain
  52. Diagnosis of feline diabetes mellitus?
    • Glucosuria – persistent or stress induced
    • Hyperglycemia – hematologic analysis
  53. Treatment for feline diabetes mellitus?
    Diet, Exercise, Insulin Therapy
  54. Ideal Diet for felines
    • Low carbohydrate
    • High protein
    • Canned vs dry
  55. Exercise ideas:
    • Toys
    • Laser pointer
    • Virtual fishbowl
  56. 3 types of Insulin Therapy:
    • PZI – long acting 40 IU/ml
    • Glargine – long duration, improves glycemic control 100 IU/ml
    • Detemir – can be diluted, has similar action to Glargine, 100 IU/ml
  57. Maintenance suggestions for feline diabetes?
    • Feeding schedules – small meals 4X daily
    • Monitor water intake
    • Blood glucose concentrations – target 83-133 mg/dl (new target for cats)
    • Clinical
    • Home monitoring
  58. Where do you get glucose from?
    Carbohydrates
  59. Converts the proteins and fats to glucose
    Liver
  60. The liver cells use fat cells or protein
    to synthesize new glucose in the blood. This process is called
    Gluconeogenesis
  61. Fat are complex molecules that are broken down by the digestive system into smaller molecules known as
    fatty acids
  62. Fatty acid can be used as a source of
    • fuel for energy,
    • hormone production,
    • skin and coat oils,
    • membranes, and
    • as body cell parts.
  63. Four main functions of fat:
    • 1. Supply energy - provides more energy than protein or carbs p/gm of food
    • 2. Palatability – Important to cats, some dogs, horses (sweet)
    • 3. Essential fatty acids – necessary for skin and coat
    • 4. Carry fat soluble vitamins (A, E, D & K)
  64. 3 Essential Fatty Acids that are important to animals
    • 1. Linoleic Acid – come from plant sources
    • 2. Linolenic Acid - come from plant sources
    • 3. Arachidonic Acid - come from fish
  65. ___________ are most potent sources of the essential fatty acids for dogs
    Vegetable oils
  66. Cats have dietary requirements for ____________ which is of animal origin
    Arachidonic Acid
  67. Fat and fatty acids are normal components of
    hair and skin – becomes dry, thickened and flaky
  68. Sources of Fat
    • 1. Lard – animal fat in solid form
    • 2. Horse fat
    • 3. Poultry fat
    • 4. Cottonseed oil
    • 5. Vegetable oil
    • 6. Fish oil.
  69. Fats are concentrated forms of energy __
    cal/gm
    9
  70. Fats are converted to _______ and ____________ in the ____________.
    • glycerol 
    • fatty acids 
    • small intestine
  71. Bile salts from the ______ break down fats to a water miscible form and pancreatic ____
    splits the fat into glycerol and fatty acids
    • gallbladder 
    • lipase
  72. Absorption occurs in the _________.
    Digestion and absorption is complete within _______. Fat contributes to ____________
    • small intestine 
    • 2 hours 
    • water retention
  73. The higher the fat absorption produces the following results in the blood (in humans):
    • 1. Slowed circulation
    • 2. Shortened clotting time – leads to blood clots.
    • 3. Decrease in sedimentation rate
  74. The increased lipase production by the pancreas
    can lead to another condition
    Pancreatitis
  75. Pancreatitis - If digestive enzymes become activated within the pancreas and are not released they will begin _______________ causing inflammation.
    digesting the pancreas itself;
  76. Pancreatitis is classified as
    Acute or Chronic
  77. Symptoms of pancreatitis
    • 1. Abdominal pain; 
    • 2. Vomiting – big key concerned with dehydration.
    • 3. Elevated pancreatic enzymes (amylase, lipase)
    • 4. Diarrhea – not a lot of this
  78. Causes of pancreatitis
    • 1. Hyperlipemia – high fat
    • 2. Obesity
    • 3. Infectious Disease – pancreatitis is secondary disease (parvo, distemper)
    • 4. Trauma – hit by car
  79. Laboratory Analysis for pancreatitis
    Elevated Lipase and amylase
  80. Treatment of pancreatitis
    • 1. Nothing per os (NPO) – reduce inflammatory action of the pancreas
    • 2. Intravenous fluids – dehydration
    • 3. Anti-inflammatory drugs
  81. When do you start an animal back on food after an episode of pancreatitis?
    Start when all vomiting has stopped or may need to place a nasogastric tube, esophagostomy
  82. Diet management of pancreatitis
    • Diet low in fat
    • No table food
  83. Crypts of Lieberkühn
    secretes enterokinase
  84. Parotid
    Salivary Gland
  85. Islets of Langerhans
    Alpha, Beta, Delta
  86. Amylase
    breakdown starch
  87. Liver
    Portal vein
  88. Trypsinogen
    Breakdown protein
  89. Small Intestine
    Ileum
  90. Brunner’s Glands
    Secretes mucus
  91. Lipase
    Breakdown fat
  92. Peyer’s Patches
    Ileum
  93. Cattle Dental formula
    2(I 0/0, C 0/1, P 3/3, M 3/3)
  94. Cat Dental formula
    2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/2, M 1/1)
  95. Dog dental formula
    2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3)
  96. Horse dental formula
    2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 3/3)

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