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Main purpose of CARBOHYDRATES
To provide energy
Classification of Carbohydrates
- 1. Simple Sugars
- 2. Complex Sugars
- 3. Trisaccharides
- 4. Polysaccharides
Define Simple Sugars.
One molecule – easily broken down. Sugars that are easily broken down to be absorbed by the body.
Other name and Examples of simple sugar
- Example: Glucose & Fructose
Define Complex Sugars
Formed by combining 2 molecules of monosaccharides
Other name and Examples of complex sugars.
- Example: Sucrose, Maltose & Lactose
Trisaccharides – Consists of 1 molecule each of _______, ________ and _____________.
Glucose, galactose and fructose
Example of trisaccharide
Made up of numerous molecules of simple sugars.
Give example of Polysaccharides
Example: Dextrin, starch, cellulose, glycogen
Some digestion of carbohydrates occurs in the
mouth by the enzyme _____________.
The primary site of digestion occurs in the
_______, ___________and __________are broken down to monosaccharides. They must be broken down to monosaccharides in order to be absorbed.
Starch, glycogen and disaccharides
Most of the carbohydrates in pet rations are
absorbed as _______.
Absorbed _________and _________ are converted to glucose
Galactose and fructose
Entry of blood glucose into most body cells is
dependent upon _______from the __________.
Entry of glucose is not insulin dependent into
- Red blood cells,
- Cells of the liver and
- Central nervous system
Normal glucose value =
80 – 120 mg/dl
Decrease in blood glucose
Hypoglycemia is caused by __________ may cause excessive _________ production which ___________blood glucose
- Pancreatic dysfunction
- insulin production
Two animals that may be affected by hypoglycemia.
- Heavily worked animals may utilize all the available blood glucose.
- Some small breeds metabolize quickly and need constant replenishment of energy
Signs of hypoglycemia
Increase in blood glucose
Cause of hyperglycemia
What type of diabetes is common in dogs?
What type of diabetes is common in cats?
Deficiency in insulin production
results in the following signs:
- 1) Extreme weight loss – not getting fat storage
- 2) Polyuria – extreme urination
- 3) Polydipsia – drink lots of water
- 4) Hyperglycemia,
- 5) Glucosuria – Glucose in urine
- 6) Ketonemia – Ketones in blood
Hyperglycemia is most commonly seen in:
- middle aged (6-8 yrs)
- female dogs.
- It may be somewhat hereditary.
Most common breeds effected by hyperglycemia are
- Cocker Spaniels and
How do you diagnose hyperglycemia?
Fasting Blood Glucose
Treatment for hyperglycemia
- A fasting blood glucose of 200 diet and exercise to start.
- SQ Insulin injections in shoulder or hip may be given by the owner. Uses small needle. Make sure client is comfortable giving injections.
- Initially given every 2 weeks then 2 months may decrease the dosage.
What two animals can digest fiber?
Horses and ruminants
Fiber is a term for
Carbohydrates whose bonds are resistant to the action of gastrointestinal enzymes
The main fiber carbohydrates are:
- 1. Cellulose
- 2. Hemicellulose
- 3. Pectin
- 4. Lignin
Cellulose forms the skeleton of most plant structures(tough outer covering of plant), can be digested by __________, but is indigestible by ______________.
In ruminants is converted to ________ to be used as energy
- simple stomached animals
- fatty acids
second most abundant compound found in plants. Very dense to reduce fermentation in the gut
Pectin - a __________within plant which may have a effect on controlling _______.
- sugar polymer
- frothy bloat
Lignin - an almost indigestible polysaccharide found in
wood, hulls and straw
The source of fiber in most pet foods is
cereal grains and milling by-products
When bacteria break down fiber, fermentation occurs which produces ___and ___. Cell wall carbohydrates (______ and ______) can be partially digested and utilized by the _______ and extensively digested in the _____. This is why ruminants are prone to condition of _______________.
- heat and gas
- cellulose and hemicellulose
- bloat (Ruminal Tympany).
Some of fibers well known effects are:
- 1. prevention of constipation (most common)
- 2. a bulking agent to promote colonic peristalsis – move through the digestive track
- 3. water absorbing properties
- 4. Increased fiber may reduce caloric intake while giving a full feeling
Lack of Fiber in human diets has been associated with such diseases as
- varicose veins
- colonic cancer and polyps
- coronary artery disease
Fiber may help to reduce the absorption of
__________, ________and other _____ materials by speeding up intestinal transit therefore less time for absorption, by absorbing the toxin into the fecal more or diluting it by absorbing water.
carcinogens, steroids and other toxic materials
Commercial pet foods developed, most canned
Dry foods more predominate - Dry or extruded
foods need increased carbohydrates to bind the ingredients
__% households - one cat
__% households – 2 or more
35% are obese due to
Genetics, OVH/Orchiectomy, lifestyle, type and method of feeding
Characteristics of Diabetes Mellitus
- Genetic Predisposition
- Poor diet
- Hormonal abnormals
Diabetes Mellitus in felines Affects:
- Male – neutered,
- Middle aged
Which cat has a Genetic Predisposition to diabetes mellitus?
Symptoms of feline diabetes mellitus?
- Weight loss or gain
Diagnosis of feline diabetes mellitus?
- Glucosuria – persistent or stress induced
- Hyperglycemia – hematologic analysis
Treatment for feline diabetes mellitus?
Diet, Exercise, Insulin Therapy
Ideal Diet for felines
- Low carbohydrate
- High protein
- Canned vs dry
- Laser pointer
- Virtual fishbowl
3 types of Insulin Therapy:
- PZI – long acting 40 IU/ml
- Glargine – long duration, improves glycemic control 100 IU/ml
- Detemir – can be diluted, has similar action to Glargine, 100 IU/ml
Maintenance suggestions for feline diabetes?
- Feeding schedules – small meals 4X daily
- Monitor water intake
- Blood glucose concentrations – target 83-133 mg/dl (new target for cats)
- Home monitoring
Where do you get glucose from?
Converts the proteins and fats to glucose
The liver cells use fat cells or protein
to synthesize new glucose in the blood. This process is called
Fat are complex molecules that are broken down by the digestive system into smaller molecules known as
Fatty acid can be used as a source of
- fuel for energy,
- hormone production,
- skin and coat oils,
- membranes, and
- as body cell parts.
Four main functions of fat:
- 1. Supply energy - provides more energy than protein or carbs p/gm of food
- 2. Palatability – Important to cats, some dogs, horses (sweet)
- 3. Essential fatty acids – necessary for skin and coat
- 4. Carry fat soluble vitamins (A, E, D & K)
3 Essential Fatty Acids that are important to animals
- 1. Linoleic Acid – come from plant sources
- 2. Linolenic Acid - come from plant sources
- 3. Arachidonic Acid - come from fish
___________ are most potent sources of the essential fatty acids for dogs
Cats have dietary requirements for ____________ which is of animal origin
Fat and fatty acids are normal components of
hair and skin – becomes dry, thickened and flaky
Sources of Fat
- 1. Lard – animal fat in solid form
- 2. Horse fat
- 3. Poultry fat
- 4. Cottonseed oil
- 5. Vegetable oil
- 6. Fish oil.
Fats are concentrated forms of energy __
Fats are converted to _______ and ____________ in the ____________.
- fatty acids
- small intestine
Bile salts from the ______ break down fats to a water miscible form and pancreatic ____
splits the fat into glycerol and fatty acids
Absorption occurs in the _________.
Digestion and absorption is complete within _______. Fat contributes to ____________
- small intestine
- 2 hours
- water retention
The higher the fat absorption produces the following results in the blood (in humans):
- 1. Slowed circulation
- 2. Shortened clotting time – leads to blood clots.
- 3. Decrease in sedimentation rate
The increased lipase production by the pancreas
can lead to another condition
Pancreatitis - If digestive enzymes become activated within the pancreas and are not released they will begin _______________ causing inflammation.
digesting the pancreas itself;
Pancreatitis is classified as
Acute or Chronic
Symptoms of pancreatitis
- 1. Abdominal pain;
- 2. Vomiting – big key concerned with dehydration.
- 3. Elevated pancreatic enzymes (amylase, lipase)
- 4. Diarrhea – not a lot of this
Causes of pancreatitis
- 1. Hyperlipemia – high fat
- 2. Obesity
- 3. Infectious Disease – pancreatitis is secondary disease (parvo, distemper)
- 4. Trauma – hit by car
Laboratory Analysis for pancreatitis
Elevated Lipase and amylase
Treatment of pancreatitis
- 1. Nothing per os (NPO) – reduce inflammatory action of the pancreas
- 2. Intravenous fluids – dehydration
- 3. Anti-inflammatory drugs
When do you start an animal back on food after an episode of pancreatitis?
Start when all vomiting has stopped or may need to place a nasogastric tube, esophagostomy
Diet management of pancreatitis
- Diet low in fat
- No table food
Crypts of Lieberkühn
Islets of Langerhans
Alpha, Beta, Delta
Cattle Dental formula
2(I 0/0, C 0/1, P 3/3, M 3/3)
Cat Dental formula
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/2, M 1/1)
Dog dental formula
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3)
Horse dental formula
2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 3/3)