Nancy Caroline's Emergency Care in the Streets - Chapter 7 A&P - Vocab

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Nancy Caroline's Emergency Care in the Streets - Chapter 7 A&P - Vocab
2013-03-24 18:55:46
anatomy physiology

Vital Vocab at end of chapter 7
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  1. The body cavity that contains the major organs of digestion and excretion. It is located below the diaphragm and above the pelvis.
  2. motion of a limb away from the midline
  3. the depression on the lateral pelvis where its three component bones join, in which the femoral head fits snugly
  4. an excitatory neurotransmitter used in the peripheral and central nervous systems
  5. the enzyme that causes muscle relaxation by the decomposition of acetylcholine
  6. a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in a water solution
  7. a pathologic condition resulting from the accumulation of acids in the body
  8. an injury caused by distraction of the clavicle away from the acromion process of the scapula
    acromioclavicular seperation (ac seperation)
  9. the tip of the shoulder and the site of attachment for both the clavicle and various shoulder muscles
    acromion process
  10. an electrochemical event where stimulation of a nearby cell could cause excitation of another cell
    action potentials
  11. any of a number of transport methods used to move compounds across a cell membrane to create or maintain an imbalance of charges, usually against a concentration gradient and requiring the expenditure of energy
    active transport
  12. the firm prominence in the upper part of the larynx formed by the thyroid cartilage. it is more prominent in men than in women.
    adam's apple
  13. the temporary or permanent reduction of sensitivity to a particular stimulus
  14. immunity; it targets specific pathogens and acts more slowly than innate defenses
    adaptive (specific) defense
  15. motion of a limb toward the midline
  16. the nucleotide involved in energy metabolism; used to store energy
    adenosine triphosphate
  17. fat tissue that lies beneath the skin, between muscles, around the kidneys, behind the eyes, in certain abdominal membranes, on the heart's surface, and around certain joints
    adipose tissue
  18. the outer layer of the adrenal gland; it produces hormones that are important in regulating the water and salt balance of the body
    adrenal cortex
  19. endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system
    adrenal glands
  20. hormone produced by the adrenal glands that mediates the "flight-or-fight" response of the sympathetic nervous system
    adrenaline (epinephrine)
  21. Hormone that targets the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol ( a glucocorticoid).
    adrenocorticotropin hormone ( ACTH)
  22. Metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen.
    aerobic metabolism
  23. The final branches of the interlobular arteries of the kidneys; they lead to the nephrons.
    afferent arterioles
  24. The perception of a stimuli is still present after the stimuli is removed.
  25. The pressure in the aorta against which the left ventricle must pump blood.
  26. Slow, gasping respirations, indicating life- threatening cerebral injury or ischemia.
    agonal gasps
  27. A substance that mimics the actions of a specific neurotransmitter or hormone by binding to the specific receptor of the naturally occurring substance.
  28. Leukocytes that lack granules
  29. The smallest of plasma proteins; they make up around 60% of these proteins by weight.
  30. A pathologic condition resulting from the accumulation of bases in the body.
  31. Variant forms of a gene, which can be identical or slightly different in DNA sequence.
  32. A substance that causes an allergic reaction.
    allergen (antigen)
  33. Cells located in the islets of Langerhans that secrete glucagon.
    alpha cells
  34. Stimulation of alpha receptors that results in vasoconstriction.
    alpha effects
  35. Ducts formed from division of the respiratory bronchioles in the lower airway; each duct ends in clusters known as alveoli.
    alveolar ducts
  36. The air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
  37. The very thin membrane, consisting of only one cell layer, that lies between the alveolus and capil-lary, through which respiratory exchange between the alveolus and the blood vessels occurs.
    alveolocapillary membrane
  38. Lazy eye; the eyes may be oriented correctly but one fails to send adequate signals to the vision centers, also causing a loss of depth perception and poor-quality images.
  39. The synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones.
  40. The metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the principal product is lactic acid.
    anaerobic metabolism
  41. The position of reference in which the patient stands facing you, arms at the side, with the palms of the hands forward.
    anatomic position
  42. The study of the structure of an organism and its parts.
  43. Male sex hormones mostly produced by the testicular interstitial cells.
  44. Ions with a negative charge.
  45. A molecule that blocks the ability of a given chemical to bind to its receptor, preventing a biologic response.
  46. The front surface of the body; the side facing forward in the anatomic position.
  47. Aqueous chamber; portion of the eyeball filled with aqueous humor, a fluid whose quantity determines the intraocular pressure, which is critical to sight.
    anterior cavity
  48. Proteins within plasma that react with antigens.
    antibodies (immunoglobulins)
  49. Substances or molecules that causes a response of the immune system.
  50. The principal artery leaving the left side of the heart and carrying freshly oxygenated blood to the body.
  51. One of the three described portions of the aorta; the section of the aorta between the ascending and descending portions that gives rise to the right brachiocephalic ( innominate), left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries.
    aortic arch
  52. The semilunar valve that regulates blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta.
    aortic valve
  53. The pointed extremity of a conical structure.
    apex (plural apices)
  54. A portion of the pons that assists in creating longer, slower respirations.
    apneustic center
  55. The portion of the skeletal system that comprises the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle.
    appendicular skeleton
  56. A small tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.
  57. Watery fluid filling the anterior eye cavity; the quantity determines the intraocular pressure, which is critical to sight.
    aqueous humor
  58. The middle membrane of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord.
  59. The type of tissue that binds skin to underlying organs and fills in spaces between muscles.
    areolar tissue
  60. The blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
  61. The smallest branches of arteries leading to the vast network of capillaries.
  62. The first of three portions of the aorta; originates from the left ventricle and gives rise to two arteries, the right and left main coronary arteries.
    ascending aorta
  63. Condition where parts of the image are out of focus and others are in focus; caused by irregularities in the shape of the eye lens.
  64. Neuroglia found usually between neurons and blood vessels.
  65. The location where the atlas articulates with the occipital condyles.
    atlanto-occipital joint
  66. The first cervical vertebra ( C1), which provides support for the head.
  67. A whole number representing the number of positively charged protons in the nucleus of an atom.
    atomic number
  68. The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
    atomic weight
  69. The smallest complete units of an element that have the ele-ment’s properties; they vary in size, weight, and interaction with other atoms.
  70. The site located in the AV junction that is responsible for transiently slowing electrical conduction.
    atrioventricular ( AV) node
  71. The mitral and tricuspid valves through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles.
    atrioventricular valves
  72. One of the two upper chambers of the heart.
  73. The bones that function in hearing and are located deep within cavities of the temporal bone.
    auditory ossicles
  74. The part of the nervous system that regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating, that are not controlled voluntarily.
    autonomic nervous system ( ANS)
  75. The chromosomes that do not carry genes that determine sex.
  76. Lacking blood vessels
  77. The part of the skeleton comprising the skull, spinal column, and rib cage.
    axial skeleton
  78. The vein that is formed from the combination of the basilic and cephalic veins; it drains into the subclavian vein.
    axillary vein
  79. The second cervical vertebra; the point that allows the head to turn.
  80. Extensions from neurons that send out electrochemical messages.
  81. Lymphocytes that exist in the blood, and are abundant in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, intestinal lining, and spleen.
    B lymphocytes (B cells)
  82. Receptors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in pressure in the heart or main arteries to help maintain homeostasis.
  83. The rate at which nutrients are consumed in the body.
    basal metabolic rate
  84. A substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions.
  85. Anchors epithelial tissue to connective tissue.
    basement membrane
  86. One of the two major veins of the arm; it combines with the cephalic vein to form the axillary vein.
    basilic vein
  87. White blood cells that work to produce chemical media-tors during an immune response.
  88. Cells located in the islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin.
    beta cells
  89. Stimulation of beta receptors that results in inotropic, dromotropic, and chronotropic states.
    beta effects
  90. In anatomy, a body part that appears on both sides of the midline.
  91. The ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine.
    bile ducts
  92. A waste product of red blood cell destruction that under-goes further metabolism in the liver.
  93. The merging of two images into one.
    binocular vision
  94. The fluid tissue that is pumped by the heart through the arteries, veins, and capillaries and consists of plasma and formed elements or cells, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  95. The pressure that the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries as it passes through them.
    blood pressure
  96. The most rigid type of connective tissue, with high mineral content that makes it harder than the other types.
  97. A substance that manufactures most red blood cells.
    bone marrow
  98. The collection of hollows in the bone of the inner ear that provide protection to the structures of the inner ear from damage and from extraneous stimulation.
    bony labyrinth
  99. The major vessel in the upper extremity that sup-plies blood to the arm.
    brachial artery
  100. The controlling organ of the body and center of consciousness; functions include perception, control of reactions to the environment, emotional responses, and judgment.
  101. The area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as respiration.
  102. Fine subdivisions of the bronchi that give rise to the alveolar ducts.
  103. Constriction of the airway passages of the lungs that accompanies muscle spasms.
  104. An abnormal “ whooshing- like” sound indicating turbulent blood fl ow within a blood vessel.
  105. Any substance that can reversibly bind H+.
  106. Fast- acting defenses for acid- base changes, providing almost immediate protection against changes in the hydrogen ion concentration of extracellular fluid.
    buffer system
  107. Cowper’s glands; glands that lie inferior to the prostate gland and secrete a lubricating fluid that prepares the penis for sexual intercourse.
    bulbourethral glands
  108. Part of the conduction system of the heart; a continuation of the atrioventricular node.
    bundle of His
  109. A small fluid-filled sac located between a tendon and a bone that cushions and protects the joint.
  110. The heel bone.
  111. A hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland that is important in the regulation of calcium levels in the body.
  112. The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a gram of water by 1° C.
  113. A type of bone that consists of a lacy network of bony rods called trabeculae.
    cancellous bone
  114. The tiny blood vessels between the arterioles and venules that permit transfer of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutri-ents, and waste between body tissues and the blood.
  115. Substances ( including sugars and starches) that provide much of the energy required by the body’s cells, as well as helping to build cell structures.
  116. The repetitive pumping process that begins with the onset of cardiac muscle contraction and ends just prior to the beginning of the next contraction.
    cardiac cycle
  117. A special striated muscle of the myocardium, containing dark intercalated disks at the junctions of abutting fibers.
    cardiac muscle tissue
  118. The volume of blood pumped through the circulatory system in 1 minute.
    cardiac output
  119. The major artery that supplies blood to the head and brain.
    carotid artery
  120. The point of division at which the common carotid artery branches at the angle of the mandible into the internal and external carotid arteries.
    carotid bifurcation
  121. The joint between the wrist and the meta-carpal bones; the thumb joint.
    carpometacarpal joint
  122. The support structure of the skeletal system that provides cushioning between bones; also forms the nasal septum and portions of the outer ear.
  123. Those connected by hyaline cartilage, or fi bro-cartilage, such as the joints that separate the vertebrae.
    cartilaginous joints
  124. The breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones.
  125. Clouding of the lens of the eye or its surrounding transparent membrane.
  126. Hormones produced by the adrenal medulla ( epinephrine and norepinephrine) that assist the body in coping with physical and emotional stress by increasing the heart and respiratory rates and the blood pressure.
  127. Ions with a positive charge.
  128. The first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens.
  129. The cell wall; a selectively permeable layer of cells that surround intracellular contents and control movement of substances into and out of the cell.
    cell membrane
  130. Cell- mediated immunity; it occurs when T cells attach to foreign, antigen- bearing cells such as bacterial cells, and interact with direct cell- to- cell contact.
    cellular immune response
  131. Process within a cell where nutrients can be broken down from complex to simpler forms or complex forms can be built from those building blocks.
    cellular metabolism
  132. A biochemical process resulting in the production of energy in the form of ATP.
    cellular respiration
  133. The brain and spinal cord.
    central nervous system (CNS)
  134. One of the two major veins of the arm that combine to form the axillary vein.
    cephalic vein
  135. One of the three major subdivisions of the brain, some-times called the “ little brain”; coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly fine body movements.
  136. Fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain that fl ows in the subarachnoid space and bathes the meninges.
    cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  137. The largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the “ gray matter”; made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality.
  138. The portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lie in the neck.
    cervical spine
  139. The lower one third or neck of the uterus.
  140. Receptors in the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart that respond to changes in chemical composition of the blood to help maintain homeostasis.
  141. Thin bands of fibrous tissue that attach to the valves in the heart and prevent them from inverting.
    chordae tendineae
  142. The vascular, pigmented middle layer of the eye wall.
  143. Specialized capillaries within hollow areas in the ventricles of the brain that produce cerebrospinal fluid.
    choroid plexus
  144. Structures formed from condensed DNA fibers and protein; they are thread-like, and are contained within the nucleus of the cells.
  145. A progressive and irreversible disease of the airway marked by decreased inspiratory and expiratory capacity of the lungs.
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  146. Related to the effect of the heart’s rate of contraction.
    chronotropic effect
  147. The name of the substance that leaves the stomach. It is a combination of all of the eaten foods with added stomach acids.
  148. The structure associated with the choroid layer of the eye that secretes aqueous humor and contains the ciliary muscle.
    ciliary body
  149. The complex arrangement of connected tubes, including the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins, that moves blood, oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and cellular waste throughout the body.
    circulatory system
  150. One of two branches of the left main coronary artery.
    circumflex coronary arteries
  151. The collarbone; it is lateral to the sternum and anterior to the scapula.
  152. In females, the small erectile body partially hidden by the labia minora.
  153. The last three or four vertebrae of the spine; the tailbone.
  154. The portion of the inner ear that has hearing receptors.
  155. A type of bone that is mostly solid.
    compact bone
  156. A group of proteins in plasma and other body fluids that interact to cause inflammation and phagocytic activities.
  157. Molecules made up of different bonded atoms.
  158. The difference in concentrations of a substance on either side of a selectively permeable membrane.
    concentration gradient
  159. One of two photoreceptors of the retina that can distinguish colors, but requires a greater amount of light to activate and create an image.
  160. The membranous covering on the anterior surface of the eye that also lines the eyelids.
  161. Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
  162. Tissues that bind, support, protect, frame, and fill body structures; they also store fat, produce blood cells, repair tissues, and protect against infection.
    connective tissues
  163. The strength of heart muscle contraction.
  164. The transparent tissue layer in front of the pupil and iris of the eye.
  165. An imaginary plane where the body is cut into front and back parts.
    coronal plane
  166. Arteries that arise from the aorta shortly after it leaves the left ventricle and supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients.
    coronary arteries
  167. Veins that collect blood that is returning from the walls of the heart.
    coronary sinus
  168. A deep bridge of nerve fi bers connecting the brain hemispheres.
    corpus callosum
  169. Yellow body; a temporary glandular structure cre-ated from enlarged follicular cells because of the release of luteinizing hormone.
    corpus luteum
  170. Any of several steroids secreted by the adrenal gland.
  171. A glucocorticoid of the middle adrenal cortex that infl u-ences protein and fat metabolism and stimulates glucose to be synthesized from noncarbohydrates.
  172. A chemical bond where atoms complete their outer electron shells by sharing electrons.
    covalent bond
  173. The 12 pairs of nerves that arise from the base of the brain.
    cranial nerves
  174. The bones that encase and protect the brain, includ-ing the parietal, temporal, frontal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.
    cranial vault
  175. The area of the head above the ears and eyes; the skull. It contains the brain.
  176. An organic compound in muscle tissue that can store and provide energy for muscle contraction.
    creatine phosphate
  177. Shrinkage of a cell that results when too much water leaves the cell through osmosis.
  178. A disease caused by lack of thyroid hormone during pregnancy; it results in severely stunted physical and mental development.
  179. A horizontal bone perforated with numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve fi laments from the nasal cavity.
    cribriform plate
  180. A firm ridge of cartilage that forms the lower part of the larynx.
    cricoid cartilage
  181. A thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and cricoid cartilages that make up the larynx.
    cricothyroid cartilage
  182. A prominent bony ridge in the center of the anterior fossa to which the meninges are attached.
    crista galli
  183. The product of slicing an object across or perpendicular to its long axis.
    cross section
  184. The flaps that comprise the heart valves.
  185. The skin; it covers the entire surface of the body.
    cutaneous membrane
  186. The division of the cytoplasm of a cell.
  187. The gel-like material that fi lls out a cell; it makes up most of the cell’s volume, and suspends the cell’s organelles.
  188. The clear liquid portion of the cytoplasm.
  189. Any portion of the airway that contains air and cannot participate in gas exchange, such as the trachea and bronchi.
    dead space
  190. A reaction that occurs when bonds within a reactant molecule break, forming simpler atoms, molecules, or ions.
    decomposition reaction
  191. Further inside the body and away from the skin.
  192. Cells within the pancreas that produce somatostatin, which helps to regulate the endocrine system.
    delta cells
  193. Extensions from neurons that receive electrochemical messages.
  194. White fibrous tissue that makes up tendons and ligaments, and exists in the eyeballs and deep skin layers.
    dense connective tissue
  195. The process by which cells activate in response to the action potential.
  196. The area of the body served by a given nerve.
  197. The inner layer of the skin, containing hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels.
  198. One of the three portions of the aorta, it is the longest portion and extends through the thorax and abdomen into the pelvis.
    descending aorta
  199. A metabolic disorder in which the ability to metabolize carbohydrates (sugar) is impaired due to lack of insulin or failure of the cells to use insulin properly.
    diabetes mellitus
  200. A process whereby leukocytes leave blood vessels to move toward tissue where they are needed most.
  201. A muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity. Con-traction of the diaphragm ( and the chest wall muscles) brings air into the lungs. Relaxation allows air to be expelled from the lungs.
  202. The relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
  203. The process of specialization of a cell.
  204. Movement of a gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
  205. The mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods and the absorption of resulting nutrients by the body’s cells.
  206. Cells that carry two of each of the 23 chromosomes— one from the father and one from the mother.
  207. A simple sugar comprised of two monosaccharides.
  208. Farther from the trunk or nearer to the free end of the extremity.
  209. The posterior surface of the body, including the back of the hand.
  210. A portion of the medulla oblongata where the primary respiratory pacemaker is found.
    dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
  211. The artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals.
    dorsalis pedis artery
  212. Related to the effect of the heart’s conduction rate.
    dromotropic effect
  213. The outermost of the three meninges that enclose the brain and spinal cord; it is the toughest membrane.
    dura mater
  214. The cavity leading from the exterior atmosphere to the tympanum.
    ear canal
  215. Receives blood that has had fluids fi ltered from it via the glomerular capillaries, which arise from the afferent arterioles.
    efferent arteriole
  216. The forcing of semen through the urethra to outside of the body.
  217. A structure formed by the vasa deferentia uniting with the duct of a seminal vesicle; this type of duct passes through the prostate gland to empty into the urethra.
    ejaculatory duct
  218. The portion of the blood in the left ventricle ejected during systole, expressed as a percentage.
    ejection fraction
  219. A flexible type of cartilage that provides frame-work for the ears and larynx.
    elastic cartilage
  220. A group of complex electrical tissues within the heart that initiate and transmit stimuli that result in contractions of myocardial tissue.
    electrical conduction system
  221. Salt or acid substances that become ionic conductors when dissolved in a solvent ( ie, water); chemicals dissolved in the blood.
  222. Single, negatively charged particles that revolve around the nucleus of an atom.
  223. Fundamental substances, such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, that compose matter.
  224. The movement of sperm cells from the testes, and secretions of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles, into the urethra.
  225. Nerve endings in the skin surrounded by connective tissue that measure mechanical inputs.
    encapsulated nerve endings
  226. The thin membrane lining the inside of the heart.
  227. The process of bone formation.
    endochondrial ossification
  228. Glands that secrete or release hormones that are used inside the body.
    endocrine glands
  229. The complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.
    endocrine system
  230. The fluid containing nerve receptors that resides inside the membranous labyrinth. Sound waves converted into pressure waves are transmitted through this fluid to the auditory nerves.
  231. The inner layer of the uterine wall.