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Who was Gustavus Adolphus?
King of Sweden
What was Gustavus Adolphus known for?
He was known as the Protestant savior because he promised to restore Protestantism in Germany
When did Gustavus Adolphus reign from?
Where was Gustavus Adolphus from?
In regards to Gustavus Adolphus what made Sweden a European power
Victories in battle
Which battle is Gustavus Adolphus most famous for? What happened and when did it take place?
- The Battle of Britenfield.
- Took place in 1631.
- He defeated the Catholic powers with financial aid of France (because king hated the Hapsburg reign) and continued on to the Holy Roman Empire threat but it ends in the pillaging of villages.
How did Gustavus Adolphus die?
He died in battle
Who was Oliver Cromwell
English military and political leader
What was Oliver Cromwell known for?
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland
When was Oliver Cromwell in office?
What religion was Oliver Cromwell?
During the English Civil war, what side did Oliver Cromwell serve on? What rank did he serve at?
He served on the Parliamentarian side as a general.
What was Fronde? Where did it take place and at what time?
A French uprising/civil war (1648-1653) (not serious rebellion)
Who was involved in the Fronde uprising?
The out-land nobles
What was the purpose of the Fronde uprising? What did the rebels challenge and what caused them to revolt?
- They challenged the French State
- The nobels resented the consolidation of power
What are the two main parts of the Fronde rebellion?
1) Members of Parliament refused to give up four years' parliament. => They wanted the king to sign a document limiting royal authority.
2) A much more violent part (called the Fronde of the Princes). The Prince de Conde and his nobles waged war on government and formed allies with france’s enemy, Spain. After Conde’s defeat, the rebellion collapsed.
Why was the rebellion moderately unsuccessful How did it end? What did Louis XIV use this uprising as? (In regards to Fronde)
- After Conde’s defeat, the rebellion collapsed.
- As it turns out the Fronde was not a very serious rebellion, and Mazarin was able to crush the rebels.
- Louis XIV passes through this as an educational experience.
What did the rebels do that frightened Louis XIV?
They broke into his bedroom and chanted anti-royal slogans.
Although mostly unsuccessful, what did the Fronde or Noble rebellion reveal?
Fronde revealed revealed the strength of the local, aristocratic, and legal forces that the king had to compete with.
What did his defeat of the nobles in Fronde help Louis XIV become?
- By defeating the noble uprising, Louis XIV gained more power and eventually became known as the "Sun King".
- Louis XIV masculates the nobility ex: Palace of Versailles
What was the Book of Common Prayer and when was it published?
- First published in 1549
- The foundational prayer book of the Church of England
What did the Book of Common Prayers help with/provide?
- I was one of the instruments of the Protestant Reformation in England
- It was full of devotional and teaching resources for individuals and congregations
Who were Jacobins? And when did they exist?
People during French Revolution (18th century) who supported a centralized Republic
What were the Jacobins' political stance
They were a far-left political movement, radicals
Who was the leader of the Jacobins
What was the viewpoint of Robspierre in regards to the Jacobins and their movement?
- He believed in the need to remove all social class distinctions.
- He also believed that the vote should be universal and that government should provide welfare for the poor
How did Robespierre gain strength (in regards to the Jacobins)
Robspierre gained strength from the artisans and the working class that was left out.
What was Robspierre's stance on how to remove oppression? I.e., How did Robspierre obtain his goal of removing social class distinctions?
He believed that the only way to obtain goal would be through the death and killing of their enemies/those who opposed them.
As a result of Robspierres killings, what "reign" was named after his rise to power?
He started the reign on terror - everyone had their head chopped off.
What happened in January of 1793 (in regards to the Jacobins)
The Jacobins put the king on trial and later killed him
What was the significance of the Peace in Westphalia?
- It brought peace between Spanish and Dutch
- It recognized the sovereignty of the Netherlands and Germany
- The European settlements of 1648 which brought to end the 8 years war between Spain and the Dutch and the German phase of the 30 years war
When was peace negotiated in regards to the Peace in Westphalia?
Peace was negotiated in 1644 in Westphalia
What was Levee En Masse?
The entire nation of France was declared to go to war.
In regard to France, who was in Levee En Masse
Anyone regardless of gender, age, or social class should go to war and do something to help. No one was left out.
What type of war did the Levee en Masse bring about?
It brought on a new age of total war in which people, not only rulers, fought.
What is the translation of Levee de Masse in English?
What brought on the Levee de Masse?
Continued Military crisis from the French Revolutionary wars
Who finally decided to form a Levee de Masse? When did they decide to do this and why?
The national convention declared the Levee de Masse in 1793 on August 23. They needed to do this to raise the military from 300,000 to over 1,000,000 "soldiers"
In regards to the Levee de Masse, what are some famous gender/age examples of what people did when called to action
- Children - pick rags
- Young men - go to battle
- Married men- Make the weapons/armor and transport supplies
- Women - make tents/uniforms and work in the hospital
- Old men- will have themselves carried to public squares, to inspire the courage of the warriors, and to preach the hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic.
What system of the military leadership chain commonly seen today was started in the Levee de Masse?
Instead of being placed as a high ranking official based off of social class. People were going up the rankings ladder based off of their success and "proven track record"
This was earned leadership versus aristrocratic leadership given out by birth/family name
Did the Levee de Masse bring France success?
- Yes but only for a short while, the more countries they invaded, the more their opposition grew...
- With this revolution in warfare, the government enjoys success for a while. They started taking their revolution to other countries like Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands. They didn’t always succeed, but as their successes grew, so did opposition. Destruction brought them more enemies.
What did the Dutch East India Company (Co.) do?
They served as middlemen and shippers for all the other powers of Europe
Where did they ship to/from? (In regards to the Dutch East India Co.)
Netherlands and India and to factories in between.
When was the Dutch East India Co. Established? What are they known as?
1602. They are known as one of the first recorded corporations having to deal with problems and financial data seen even in today's world/market.
What is the Dutch East India Co. famous for? (Two things)
- 1) First multinational registered company
- 2) First company to issue stock
Why was the Dutch East India Co. founded?
The DEIC was founded by Dutch to protect their trade in the Indian Ocean and assist in their war of Independence from Spain.
What did the Dutch East India Co. transport?
The Dutch transported sugar, cotton textiles, grain, timber, porcelain, and silk to markets throughout the world
What made the Dutch East India Co. so successful?
- Supply and Demand. Value of an item in one country > value of same item in another country.
- By capitalizing off of this idea, the DEIC was able to buy products for cheap and sell them to a different country that didn't have that product for an insane profit margin
- This profession made merchants as wealthy or even more wealthy as the nobility but the nobility still viewed the merchants as "below them"
What powers were the Dutch East India Co. given?
They were given power to negotiate and make treaties with other governments on their own
What is Mercantilism?
Definition: exploiting a country’s economic resources for the benefit of the state. The wealth of the state depended on its ability to import fewer commodities than it exported. Goal: to secure the largest possible share of the world’s supply.
What does Mercantilism need to be successful in regards to money?
A profit... duh
When did Mercantilism dominate European economic policy?
16th to late 18th centuries
Who is Immanuel Kant? What is he known for?
Philosopher, Redeemer of Reason
In what years did Immanuel Kant live? Where was he born?
- When: 1724-1804,
- Born in Koingsbergs in Prussia (Not Russia, it is Russia today, back then it was still Prussia) Prussia is a Germanic Kingdom that eventually aligned with the German state of Brandenburg.
What did Immanuel Kant do that he is most famous for?
In simple terms, Kant pointed out that we all shape our experience of things through the filter of our mind. The mind shapes that experience, and among other things, Kant believed the concepts of space and time where programmed into the human brain, as was the notion of cause and effect. We never have direct experience of things, the noumenal world, and what we do experience is the phenomenal world as conveyed by our senses. These observations summarize Kant's views upon the subject–object problem.