NR 405 Patho Exam 2

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tbemis
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208079
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NR 405 Patho Exam 2
Updated:
2013-03-18 21:41:27
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Pulmonary Neuro
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Pulmonary and Neuro
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  1. What are the conducting airways?
    Move air into lungs, warm and humidify air trap inhaled particles. allow air in and out of gas exchange structures
  2. What happens in the gas exchange airways?
    Made up of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. Alveoli are primary gas exchange units of lungs. 
-2 major types of epithelial cells are in alveolus: Type 1 cells- provide structure, and Type II secrete surfactant, which is a lipoprotein that coats the inner surface of the alveolus- helps prevent lung collapse
  3. What are goblet cells?
    single celled exocrine glands within the epithelial lining of the bronchi.
  4. What are the peripheral chemoreceptors?
    neurons that are in carotid and aortic bodies- measure PO2 in arterial blood, Increase respirations when PO2 <60 mm Hg
  5. Compare and contrast perfusion vs. ventilation?
    • Perfusion exceeds ventilation in the bases of the lungs, and ventilation exceeds perfusion in the apices of the lungs. Expressed in a ratio called ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q). Normal V/Q ratio is 0.8- this is the amount by which perfusion exceeds ventilation under normal circumstances. A persons position will affect distribution of blood flow. Greatest volume of blood flow will occur in gravity dependent areas of the lung. Effective gas exchange depends on even distribution of gas (ventilation), and blood (perfusion) in all portions of the
    • lung.
  6. What is a Pneumothorax?
    air in pleural space destroys negative pressure within the thorax causing the lung to collapse.
  7. What is a Open pneumothorax?
    Air is being drawn into the thorax with inspiration and forced out during expiration (broken ribs, traumatic fall, something is entering the pleural space that shouldn’t be there)
  8. What is a Tension pneumothorax?
    Air is drawn into the thorax during inspiration and then remains trapped
  9. What is a Spontaneous (primary) pneumothorax?
    Occurs unexpectedly  usually in males 20-40 related to the rupture of blebs (blisters) on the visceral pleura.  Cause of bleb formation is unknown.
  10. What is a Secondary pneumothorax?
    Chest trauma or rupture of bulla (large blister) related to emphysema or mechanical ventilation.
  11. What is Atelectasis ?
    – shriveled upalveoli, not getting good gas exchange (often seen in the bases)
  12. What is the pathology of cystic fibrosis?
    Defective epithelial chloride ion transport

    • -Mucus is dehydrated and iscous because of defective Cl secretion and excess Na+ absorption leading to bacteria filled airway
    • epithelium
  13. What are the 3 types of buffering systems?
    • -Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering system
    • -Protein buffering 
    • -Renal buffering
  14. What is the number one predictor of oxygenation?
    Level of conciseness
  15. What are upper motor neuron syndromes?
    • -Hemiparesis or hemiplagia 
    • -Diplegia 
    • -Paraparesis or paraplegia
    • -Quadriparisis or quadriplegia
    • -Pyramidal motor syndromes
    • -Spinal shock
  16. What are lower motor neuron syndromes?
    • -Flaccid parasis or flaccid paralysis
    • -Hyporeflexia or areflexia
    • -Fibrillation (single muscle that contracts randomly without voluntary coordination)
  17. Where does the bleeding take place with an epidermal hematoma?
    Between cranial vault and dura (rapid bleeding)
  18. Where does the bleeding take place with an subdural hematoma?
    -Between dura matter and arachnoid space (slower bleeding)
  19. What type of alveolar cells produce surfactant?
    Type II
  20. Where are vital signs controlled?
    In the medulla oblongata
  21. When are the cells that produce surfactant mature?
    Between 26-28 weeks
  22. What are the clinical manifestations of ARDS?
    • -Hyperventilation
    •   Respiratory alkalosis
    •   Dyspnea and hypoxemia
    •   Metabolic acidosis
    •   Hypoventilation
    •   Respiratory acidosis
    •   Further hypoxemia
    •   Hypotension, decreased cardiac output, death
  23. What is status asthmaticus ?
    bronchospasum so severe it obstructs the air flow
  24. Why are people with cystic fibrosis predisposed to having chronic lung infections?
    Due to thick mucus secretions
  25. What other problems present with cystic fibrosis?
    • Digestive problems
    •  Flatulence
    •  Steatorrhea
    •  Weight loss
  26. What is in the CNS?
    Brain and spinal cord
  27. What is in the PNS?
    • -Cranial nerves
    • – Spinal nerves

    • – Pathways:
    • • Afferent (ascending)
    • • Efferent (descending)
  28. What is the blood brain barrier?
    • Cellular structures that selectively inhibit
    • certain potentially harmful substances in the
    • blood from entering the interstitial spaces of
    • the brain or CSF
  29. What are the three main catecholamines?
    Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine
  30. When do you classify someone has epilepsy?
    When no underlying cause can be found for their seizures
  31. What does MS result in?
    Destruction of myelin coating on axons
  32. What is a unique factor to ALS?
    Damages both upper and lower motor neurons
  33. What is Guillain-Barré syndrome?
    Acquired immune-mediated polyneuropathy

    • – Inflammatory disease causing demyelination of the peripheral nerves Acute onset, ascending
    • motor paralysis 

    -it effects many nerves
  34. What happens during parkinson's disease?
    Reduced striatal concentration of dopamine
  35. What is spina bifita?
    Failure of osseous spine to close
  36. What are the two types of spina bifita?
    • Spina Bifida Occulta
    •  Not visible externally

    • – Spina Bifida Cystica
    •  Visible defect
    •  Sac-like protrusion

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