NR 405 Patho Exam 2
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What are the conducting airways?
Move air into lungs, warm and humidify air trap inhaled particles. allow air in and out of gas exchange structures
What happens in the gas exchange airways?
Made up of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. Alveoli are primary gas exchange units of lungs.
-2 major types of epithelial cells are in alveolus: Type 1 cells- provide structure, and Type II secrete surfactant, which is a lipoprotein that coats the inner surface of the alveolus- helps prevent lung collapse
What are goblet cells?
single celled exocrine glands within the epithelial lining of the bronchi.
What are the peripheral chemoreceptors?
neurons that are in carotid and aortic bodies- measure PO2 in arterial blood, Increase respirations when PO2 <60 mm Hg
Compare and contrast perfusion vs. ventilation?
- Perfusion exceeds ventilation in the bases of the lungs, and ventilation exceeds perfusion in the apices of the lungs. Expressed in a ratio called ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q). Normal V/Q ratio is 0.8- this is the amount by which perfusion exceeds ventilation under normal circumstances. A persons position will affect distribution of blood flow. Greatest volume of blood flow will occur in gravity dependent areas of the lung. Effective gas exchange depends on even distribution of gas (ventilation), and blood (perfusion) in all portions of the
What is a Pneumothorax?
air in pleural space destroys negative pressure within the thorax causing the lung to collapse.
What is a Open pneumothorax?
Air is being drawn into the thorax with inspiration and forced out during expiration (broken ribs, traumatic fall, something is entering the pleural space that shouldn’t be there)
What is a Tension pneumothorax?
Air is drawn into the thorax during inspiration and then remains trapped
What is a Spontaneous (primary) pneumothorax?
Occurs unexpectedly usually in males 20-40 related to the rupture of blebs (blisters) on the visceral pleura. Cause of bleb formation is unknown.
What is a Secondary pneumothorax?
Chest trauma or rupture of bulla (large blister) related to emphysema or mechanical ventilation.
What is Atelectasis ?
– shriveled upalveoli, not getting good gas exchange (often seen in the bases)
What is the pathology of cystic fibrosis?
Defective epithelial chloride ion transport
- -Mucus is dehydrated and iscous because of defective Cl secretion and excess Na+ absorption leading to bacteria filled airway
What are the 3 types of buffering systems?
- -Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffering system
- -Protein buffering
- -Renal buffering
What is the number one predictor of oxygenation?
Level of conciseness
What are upper motor neuron syndromes?
- -Hemiparesis or hemiplagia
- -Paraparesis or paraplegia
- -Quadriparisis or quadriplegia
- -Pyramidal motor syndromes
- -Spinal shock
What are lower motor neuron syndromes?
- -Flaccid parasis or flaccid paralysis
- -Hyporeflexia or areflexia
- -Fibrillation (single muscle that contracts randomly without voluntary coordination)
Where does the bleeding take place with an epidermal hematoma?
Between cranial vault and dura (rapid bleeding)
Where does the bleeding take place with an subdural hematoma?
-Between dura matter and arachnoid space (slower bleeding)
What type of alveolar cells produce surfactant?
Where are vital signs controlled?
In the medulla oblongata
When are the cells that produce surfactant mature?
Between 26-28 weeks
What are the clinical manifestations of ARDS?
- Respiratory alkalosis
- Dyspnea and hypoxemia
- Metabolic acidosis
- Respiratory acidosis
- Further hypoxemia
- Hypotension, decreased cardiac output, death
What is status asthmaticus ?
bronchospasum so severe it obstructs the air flow
Why are people with cystic fibrosis predisposed to having chronic lung infections?
Due to thick mucus secretions
What other problems present with cystic fibrosis?
- Digestive problems
- Weight loss
What is in the CNS?
Brain and spinal cord
What is in the PNS?
- -Cranial nerves
- – Spinal nerves
- – Pathways:
- • Afferent (ascending)
- • Efferent (descending)
What is the blood brain barrier?
- Cellular structures that selectively inhibit
- certain potentially harmful substances in the
- blood from entering the interstitial spaces of
- the brain or CSF
What are the three main catecholamines?
Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine
When do you classify someone has epilepsy?
When no underlying cause can be found for their seizures
What does MS result in?
Destruction of myelin coating on axons
What is a unique factor to ALS?
Damages both upper and lower motor neurons
What is Guillain-Barré syndrome?
Acquired immune-mediated polyneuropathy
- – Inflammatory disease causing demyelination of the peripheral nerves Acute onset, ascending
- motor paralysis
-it effects many nerves
What happens during parkinson's disease?
Reduced striatal concentration of dopamine
What is spina bifita?
Failure of osseous spine to close
What are the two types of spina bifita?
- Spina Bifida Occulta
- Not visible externally
- – Spina Bifida Cystica
- Visible defect
- Sac-like protrusion
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