Chapter 1 General principles of Pathology

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Chapter 1 General principles of Pathology
2013-03-18 20:10:23

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  1. Pathology-
    study of disease including any abnormal changes seen in the body
  2. Disease
    the pattern of the bodys response to some form of injury
  3. Etiology
    study of the causes of the disease process
  4. Pathogenesis
    disease developes according to the mechanism of injury, sequence of events
  5. manifestation
    observed changes seen in the patient
  6. establishing manifestations is done by?
    patient: their history including chief complaint.

    HCP: observation of abnormal changes. i.e. skin changes, swelling
  7. objective testing or procedures
    testing- involves analysis of specimens

    procedure - is more in depth testing
  8. 4 events of inflammatory response
    • 1.alterations - in blood flow vascular permeability
    • 2.migration- circulating white blood cells
    • 3.phagocytosis- digestions of dead cells
    • regeneration
  9. five cardinal signs of acute inflammation
    • rubor- redness
    • calor-heat
    • tumur-swelling
    • loss of function
  10. Edema-
    accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the inter cellular tissue space or body cavities
  11. ischemia-
    interference of blood supply
  12. infarct-
    localized area of ischemia necrosis or dead tissue
  13. hemorrhage-
    rupture of a blood vessel
  14. hematoma-
    trapped blood within tissue
  15. Petechiae-
    minute amount of trapped blood
  16. purpura-
    trapped blood smaller than 1-2cm
  17. ecchymosis (bruise)-
    Larger than 1-2cm
  18. Body reactions to pathologic conditions?
    • 1.inflammation
    • 2.edema
    • 3.ischemia
    • 4.hemorrhage
    • 5.alteration
  19. Atrophy-
    reduction in size/number of cells with decrease function
  20. hypoplasia/aplasia-
    failure of normal development results in abnormal  small size
  21. hyperplasia-
    increased number of tissue cells
  22. hypertrophy-
    increased in overall size of cells
  23. metaplasia-
    changs in cellular structure from normal to abnormal
  24. dysplasia-
    abnormal development of tissue, can precede a malignant change. associated with prolonged/chronic inflammation or irritation
  25. Alterations of cell growth
    CH 1 pg 9
  26. benign tumors usually consist of cells that resemble?
    tissue of origin
  27. 8 benign tissue discussed in textbook pg7
    • 1. chondroma
    • 2.fibroma
    • 3.adenoma
    • 4.cystadenoma
    • 5.myoma
    • 6.lipomas
    • 7.papilloma
    • 8.angiomas
  28. 4 malignant tumors
    • 1.carcinoma
    • 2.adenocarcinoma
    • 3.squamous cell carcinoma
    • 4.sarcoma
  29. malignant tumor spread by?
    seeding or lymphatic and/or hematogenous (blood) routes
  30. staging/grading describes its
    degree of malignancy