a person's awareness of and resposiveness to mental process and the environment.
mental state that encompasses the thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that occur when we are awake and reasonable alert
mental states that differ coticeably from normal waking consciousness.
altered states of consciousness
a regular biological rhythm with a period of approximately 24 hours.
a cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus that raceives input from the retina regarding light and dark cycles and is involved in regulating the biological clock
suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
sleep stage characterized by rapid-eye movements and increased dreaming
rapid-eye movement (REM) or paradoxical sleep
non-rapid-eye-movement stages of sleep that alternate with REM stages during the sleep cycle.
non-REM (NREM) sleep
frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep and are remembered.
frightening, often terrifying dreams that occur during NREM sleep from which a person is difficult to awaken and doesn't remember the content
sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or reamining asleep throughout the night
sleep disorder characterized by breathing difficulty during th night and feelings of exhaustion during the day
herditary sleep disorder characterized by sudden nodding off during the day and sudden loss of muscle tone following moments of emotional excitement
vivid visual and auditory experiences that occur primary during REM periods of sleep
chemical substances that change modds and perceptions.
a pattern of drug use that diminishes the ability to fulfill responsibilities at home, work, or school that results in reapeated use of a drug in dangerous situations or that leads to legal difficulties related to drug use
a pattern of compulsive drug taking that results in olerance, withdrawal symptoms, or other specific symptoms for at least a year.
experimental design useful in studies of the effects of drugs, in which neither the subject nor the researcher knows at the time of administration which subjects are receiving an active drug and which are receiving an inactive substance
chemically inactive substance used for comparison with active drugs in experiments on the effects of drugs
chemicals that slow down behavior or cognitive processes
depresant that is the intoxicationg ingredient in whiskey, beer, wine, and other fermented or distilled liquors
potentially deadly depressants, first used for their sedative and anticonvulsant properties, now used only to treat such conditions as epilepsy and arthritis
drugs, such as opium and heroin, derived from the opium poppy, that dull the senses and induce feelings of euphoria, well being, and relaxation. synthetic drugs resembling opium derivatives are also classified as opiates.
drugs, including amphetamines and cocaine, that stimulate sympathtic nervious system and produce feelings of optimism and boundless energy
stimulant drugs that initially produce "rushes" of euphoria often followed by sudden "crash" and, sometimes, severe depression
drug derived from the coca plant that, although producing a sense f euphoria by stimulating the sympathetic nervious system, also leads to anxiety, depression, and addictive cravings
any of the number of drugs, such as LSD and mescaline, that distort visual and auditory perception
hallucinogenic or "psychedelic" drug that produces hallucinations and delusions similar to those occuring in a phychotic state
Lysergic acid diethylamid (LSD)
a mild hallucinogen that produces a "high" often characterized by feelings of euphoria, a sense of well-being and swings in mood from gaiety to relaxation; may also cause feeling of anxiety and paranoia
any of the various methods of concentration, reflection, or focusing of thoughts undertaken to suppress the activity of the sympathetic nervous system
trancelike state in which a person responds readily to suggestions
the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior
the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral, stimulus.
classical (or pavlovian) conditioning
a stimulus that invariably causes and organism to repsond in a specific way.
unconditioned stimulus (US)
a response that takes place in an organism to respond in a specific way.
Unconditioned response (UR)
an originally neautral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually prodeces the desired response in an organism when presented alone
conditioned stimulus (CS)
after conditioning, the response an organism produces when a conditioned stimulus in presented
conditioned response (CR)
paring the conditioned stimulus and the uncondiationed stimulus on only a portion of the learning trials
a conditioning technique designd to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation.
a bilogical readiness to learn certain associations beacause of their survival advantages
conditoined avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one paring of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
conditioned taste aversion
the type of learning in whcih behaviors ar emitted (in the presence of specific stimuli) to earn rewards or avoid punishments.
operant (or instrumental) conditioning
behaviors designed to operate on the environment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasent.
a stimuli that folows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
stimuli that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
Thorndike's theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be "stamped in" as learned behavior, and behavior that brings about discomfort will be "stamped out"
law of effect (principle of reinforcement)
a box often used in operant conditioning of animals; it limits the available responses and thus increases the likelihood that the dirired response will occur
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
events whose reduction or termination increases the liklihood that ongoing behavior will recur
any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something unpleasant, such as punishment
failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous stimulus that occurs as a result of previousexposure to anavoidable painful stimuli
a technique hat uses monitoring devices to provide precise information about internal physiological processes, such as heart rate or blood pressure, to teach people to gain voluntary control over these functions
a biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves with the use of an EEG to teach people to gain voluntary control over their brain wave activity
a reliable "if-then" relationship between 2 events, such as a CS and a US
a process whereby prior conditoining prevents conditioning to a second stimulus even when the 2 stimuli are present simultaneously
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when and how ften reinforcers will be delivered
schedule of reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed lenth of time since the last reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule in which the corect response is reinforced after varying lengthg of time following the last reinforcement.
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is rienforced after a fixed number of correct response
a reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement is presented.
a decrease in the strenth or frequency, or stopping, of a learned response because of failure to continue paring the US and CS(classical conditioning) or withholding of reinforcement (operant conditioning)
the reappearance of an extinguished response after the pasage of time, without training.
the transfer of a learned response to different but smilar stimuli
learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhabit the response to all other stimuli
giving a response that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus
conditioning based on prvious learning; the conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned stimulus for further training
higher order conditioning
reinforcers whose value is acquired through association with other primary or secondary reinforcers
learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable
learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change
a learned mental image of a spatial environment that may be called on to solve problems when stimuli in the environment change
learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem
the ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are solved
learning by observing other people's behavior
observational (or vicarious) learning
reinforcement or punishment experienced by models that affects the willingness of others to perform the behaviors they learned by observing those models
vicarious reinforcement (or punishment)
the ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned
a computer like model used to describe the way humans encode, store, an retrieve information
entry points for raw information from the senses
the selection of some incoming information for further processing
working memory; briefly stores and processes selected information from the sensory registers
short-term memory (STM)
the grouping of information into meaningful units for easier handling by short term memory
retaining information in memory simply by repeating it over and over
the portion of memory that is more or less permanent, corresponding to everything we "know".
long term memory
the finding that when asked to recall a list of unrelated items, performance is better for the items at the beginning and end of the list
serial position effect
the linking of new information in short term memory to familiar material stored in long term memory
techniques that make material easier to remember
a set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience
the portion of long term memory that stored general facts and information
the portion of long term memory that stores information relating to skills, habits, and other perceptual motor tasks
learned emotional responses to various stimuli
memory for information that we can readily express in words and are aware of having; these memories can be intentionally retrieved from memory
memory for informatino that we cannot readily express in words and may not be aware of having; these memories cannot be intentionally retrieved from memory
knowing a word, but not being able to immediately recall it
tip-of-the-tongue phenomeon (TOT)
a long lasting change in the structure or function of a synapse that increases the efficiency of nearal transmission and is thought to be related to how information is stored by neurons
long term potentiation
a theory that argues that the passage of time causes forgetting
the inability to recall events preceding an accident or injury, but without loss of earlier memory
the process by which new information interferes with information already in memory
the process by which information already in memory interferes with new information
the difficulty adults have remembering experiences from their first two years of life
the ability to reproduce unusually sharp and detailed images of something one has seen
people with highly developed memory skills
a vivid memory of a certin event and the incidents surrounding it even after a long time has passed
a flexible system of communication that uses sounds, rules, gestures, or symbols to convey information
the basic sounds that make up any language
the smallest meaningful units of speech, such as simple words, prefixes, and suffixes
the language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language
a mental representation of a sensory experience
mental categories for classifying objects, people, or experiences
Whorf's idea that patterns of thinking are determined by the specific language one speaks
linguistic relativity hypothesis
The belief that thought and expreience are determined by language
stereotyped communications about an animal's current state
the first step in solving a problem; it involves interpreting or defining the problem
thinking that meets the criteria of originality, inventiveness, and flexibility.
a step-by-step method of problem solving that guarantees a correct solution
rules of thumb that help in simplifying and solvin problems, althouh they do not guarantee a corect solution
a heuristic, problem-solving strategy in which each step moves you progressively closer to the final goal
intermediate, more manageable goals used in one heuristic strategy to make it easier to reach the final goal
a heuristic strategy that aims to reduce the discrepancy between the current situation and the desired goal at a number of intermediate points
a heuristic strategy in which one works backward from the desired goal to the given conditions
the tendency to perceive and to approach problems in certain ways
the tendency to perceive only a limited number of uses for an object, thus interfering with the process of problem solving
a problem solving strategy in which an individual or a group produces numerous ideas and evaluates them only after all ideas have been collected
a rational dicision making model in which choices are systematically evaluated on various criteria
a heuristic by which a new situation is judged on the basis of its resemblance to a stereotypical model
a heuristic by which a judgment or decistion is based on information that is most easily retrieved from memory
the tendency to look for evidence in support of a belief and to ignore evidence that would disprove a belief
the perspective from which we interpret information before making a decision
the tendency to see outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we know the outcome
thinking about alternative realities and things that never happened.
a gernal term referring to the ability or abilities involved in leraning and adaptive behavior
Sternberg's theory that intelligence involves mental skills, insight and creative adaptability, and environmental responsiveness
triarchic theory of intelligence
Howard Gardner's theory that there is not one intelligence, but rather many intelligences, each of which is relatively independent of the others
theory of multiple intelligences
according to Goleman, a form of intelligence that refers to how effectively people perceive and understand their own emotions and the emotions of others, and can regulate and manage their emotional behavior
A numerical value given to intelligence that is determined from the scores on an intelligence test on the basis of a score of 100 for average intelligence
an individual intelligence test developed especially for adults; measures both verbal and performance abilities
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III)
an individual intelligence test developed especially for school aged childeren; measures verbal and performance abilities and also yields an overal IQ score.
Wechsler intelligence scale for children-third edition (WISC-III)
written intelligence tests administered by one examiner to many people at one time
intelligence tests that minimize the use of language
intelligence tests designed to eliminate cultural bias by minimizing skills and values that vary from one culture to another
ability of a test to produce consistent and stable scores
a method of determining test reliability by dividing the test into two parts and checking the agreement of scores on both parts
statistical measures of the degree of association between two variables
ability of a test to measure what it has been designed to measure
refers to a test's having an adequate sample of questions measuring the skills or knowledge it is supposed to measure
validity of a test as measured by a comparison of the tst score and independent measures of what the test is designed to measure
condition of significantly subaverage intelligence combined with deficiencies in adaptive behavior
refers to superior IQ combined with demonstrated or potential ability in such areas as academic aptitude, creativity and leadership
theability to produce novel and socially valued ideas or objects