Physc. 4-6

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Physc. 4-6
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2013-04-01 13:33:32
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physc. 4-6
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  1. a person's awareness of and resposiveness to mental process and the environment.
    consciousness
  2. mental state that encompasses the thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that occur when we are awake and reasonable alert
    waking consciousness
  3. mental states that differ coticeably from normal waking consciousness.
    altered states of consciousness
  4. a regular biological rhythm with a period of approximately 24 hours.
    circadian rhythm
  5. a cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus that raceives input from the retina regarding light and dark cycles and is involved in regulating the biological clock
    suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
  6. sleep stage characterized by rapid-eye movements and increased dreaming
    rapid-eye movement (REM) or paradoxical sleep
  7. non-rapid-eye-movement stages of sleep that alternate with REM stages during the sleep cycle.
    non-REM (NREM) sleep
  8. frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep and are remembered.
    nightmares
  9. frightening, often terrifying dreams that occur during NREM sleep from which a person is difficult to awaken and doesn't remember the content
    night terrors
  10. sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in falling asleep or reamining asleep throughout the night
    insomnia
  11. sleep disorder characterized by breathing difficulty during th night and feelings of exhaustion during the day
    apnea
  12. herditary sleep disorder characterized by sudden nodding off during the day and sudden loss of muscle tone following moments of emotional excitement
    narcolepsy
  13. vivid visual and auditory experiences that occur primary during REM periods of sleep
    dreams
  14. chemical substances that change modds and perceptions.
    psychoactive drugs
  15. a pattern of drug use that diminishes the ability to fulfill responsibilities at home, work, or school that results in reapeated use of a drug in dangerous situations or that leads to legal difficulties related to drug use
    substance abuse
  16. a pattern of compulsive drug taking that results in olerance, withdrawal symptoms, or other specific symptoms for at least a year.
    substance dependance
  17. experimental design useful in studies of the effects of drugs, in which neither the subject nor the researcher knows at the time of administration which subjects are receiving an active drug and which are receiving an inactive substance
    double-blind procedure
  18. chemically inactive substance used for comparison with active drugs in experiments on the effects of drugs
    placebo
  19. chemicals that slow down behavior or cognitive processes
    depressants
  20. depresant that is the intoxicationg ingredient in whiskey, beer, wine, and other fermented or distilled liquors
    alcohol
  21. potentially deadly depressants, first used for their sedative and anticonvulsant properties, now used only to treat such conditions as epilepsy and arthritis
    barbiturates
  22. drugs, such as opium and heroin, derived from the opium poppy, that dull the senses and induce feelings of euphoria, well being, and relaxation. synthetic drugs resembling opium derivatives are also classified as opiates.
    opiates
  23. drugs, including amphetamines and cocaine, that stimulate sympathtic nervious system and produce feelings of optimism and boundless energy
    stimulants
  24. stimulant drugs that initially produce "rushes" of euphoria often followed by sudden "crash" and, sometimes, severe depression
    amphetamines
  25. drug derived from the coca plant that, although producing a sense f euphoria by stimulating the sympathetic nervious system, also leads to anxiety, depression, and addictive cravings
    cocaine
  26. any of the number of drugs, such as LSD and mescaline, that distort visual and auditory perception
    hallucinogens
  27. hallucinogenic or "psychedelic" drug that produces hallucinations and delusions similar to those occuring in a phychotic state
    Lysergic acid diethylamid (LSD)
  28. a mild hallucinogen that produces a "high" often characterized by feelings of euphoria, a sense of well-being and swings in mood from gaiety to relaxation; may also cause feeling of anxiety and paranoia
    marijuana
  29. any of the various methods of concentration, reflection, or focusing of thoughts undertaken to suppress the activity of the sympathetic nervous system
    meditation
  30. trancelike state in which a person responds readily to suggestions
    hypnosis
  31. the process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior
    learning
  32. the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral, stimulus.
    classical (or pavlovian) conditioning
  33. a stimulus that invariably causes and organism to repsond in a specific way.
    unconditioned stimulus (US)
  34. a response that takes place in an organism to respond in a specific way.
    Unconditioned response (UR)
  35. an originally neautral stimulus that is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and eventually prodeces the desired response in an organism when presented alone
    conditioned stimulus (CS)
  36. after conditioning, the response an organism produces when a conditioned stimulus in presented
    conditioned response (CR)
  37. paring the conditioned stimulus and the uncondiationed stimulus on only a portion of the learning trials
    intermittent paring
  38. a conditioning technique designd to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation.
    desinsitization therapy
  39. a bilogical readiness to learn certain associations beacause of their survival advantages
    preparedness
  40. conditoined avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one paring of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
    conditioned taste aversion
  41. the type of learning in whcih behaviors ar emitted (in the presence of specific stimuli) to earn rewards or avoid punishments.
    operant (or instrumental) conditioning
  42. behaviors designed to operate on the environment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasent.
    operatnt behaviors
  43. a stimuli that folows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
    reinforcers
  44. stimuli that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
    punishers
  45. Thorndike's theory that behavior consistently rewarded will be "stamped in" as learned behavior, and behavior that brings about discomfort will be "stamped out"
    law of effect (principle of reinforcement)
  46. a box often used in operant conditioning of animals; it limits the available responses and thus increases the likelihood that the dirired response will occur
    Skinner box
  47. reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
    shaping
  48. events whose presence increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
    positive reinforcers
  49. events whose reduction or termination increases the liklihood that ongoing behavior will recur
    negative reinforcers
  50. any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
    punishment
  51. learning a desirable behavior to prevent the occurrence of something unpleasant, such as punishment
    avoidance training
  52. failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous stimulus that occurs as a result of previousexposure to anavoidable painful stimuli
    learned helplessness
  53. a technique hat uses monitoring devices to provide precise information about internal physiological processes, such as heart rate or blood pressure, to teach people to gain voluntary control over these functions
    biofeedback
  54. a biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves with the use of an EEG to teach people to gain voluntary control over their brain wave activity
    neurofeedback
  55. a reliable "if-then" relationship between 2 events, such as a CS and a US
    contingency
  56. a process whereby prior conditoining prevents conditioning to a second stimulus even when the 2 stimuli are present simultaneously
    blocking
  57. in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when and how ften reinforcers will be delivered
    schedule of reinforcement
  58. a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed lenth of time since the last reinforcement
    fixed-interval schedule
  59. a reinforcement schedule in which the corect response is reinforced after varying lengthg of time following the last reinforcement.
    variable-interval schedule
  60. a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is rienforced after a fixed number of correct response
    fixed-ratio schedule
  61. a reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement is presented.
    variable-ratio schedule
  62. a decrease in the strenth or frequency, or stopping, of a learned response because of failure to continue paring the US and CS(classical conditioning) or withholding of reinforcement (operant conditioning)
    extinction
  63. the reappearance of an extinguished response after the pasage of time, without training.
    spontaneous recovery
  64. the transfer of a learned response to different but smilar stimuli
    stimulus generalization
  65. learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhabit the response to all other stimuli
    stimulus discrimination
  66. giving a response that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus
    response generalization
  67. conditioning based on prvious learning; the conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned stimulus for further training
    higher order conditioning
  68. reinforcers whose value is acquired through association with other primary or secondary reinforcers
    secondary reinforcers
  69. learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable
    cognitive learning
  70. learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change
    latent learning
  71. a learned mental image of a spatial environment that may be called on to solve problems when stimuli in the environment change
    cognitive map
  72. learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problem
    insight
  73. the ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are solved
    learning set
  74. learning by observing other people's behavior
    observational (or vicarious) learning
  75. reinforcement or punishment experienced by models that affects the willingness of others to perform the behaviors they learned by observing those models
    vicarious reinforcement (or punishment)
  76. the ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned
    memory
  77. a computer like model used to describe the way humans encode, store, an retrieve information
    information-processing model
  78. entry points for raw information from the senses
    sensory registers
  79. the selection of some incoming information for further processing
    attention
  80. working memory; briefly stores and processes selected information from the sensory registers
    short-term memory (STM)
  81. the grouping of information into meaningful units for easier handling by short term memory
    chunking
  82. retaining information in memory simply by repeating it over and over
    rote rehearsal
  83. the portion of memory that is more or less permanent, corresponding to everything we "know".
    long term memory
  84. the finding that when asked to recall a list of unrelated items, performance is better for the items at the beginning and end of the list
    serial position effect
  85. the linking of new information in short term memory to familiar material stored in long term memory
    elaborative rehearsal
  86. techniques that make material easier to remember
    mnemonics
  87. a set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience
    schema
  88. the portion of long term memory that stored general facts and information
    secmantic memories
  89. the portion of long term memory that stores information relating to skills, habits, and other perceptual motor tasks
    procedural memories
  90. learned emotional responses to various stimuli
    emotional memories
  91. memory for information that we can readily express in words and are aware of having; these memories can be intentionally retrieved from memory
    explicit memory
  92. memory for informatino that we cannot readily express in words and may not be aware of having; these memories cannot be intentionally retrieved from memory
    implicit memory
  93. knowing a word, but not being able to immediately recall it
    tip-of-the-tongue phenomeon (TOT)
  94. a long lasting change in the structure or function of a synapse that increases the efficiency of nearal transmission and is thought to be related to how information is stored by neurons
    long term potentiation
  95. a theory that argues that the passage of time causes forgetting
    decay theory
  96. the inability to recall events preceding an accident or injury, but without loss of earlier memory
    retrograde amnesia
  97. the process by which new information interferes with information already in memory
    retroactive interference
  98. the process by which information already in memory interferes with new information
    proactive interference
  99. the difficulty adults have remembering experiences from their first two years of life
    childhood amnesia
  100. the ability to reproduce unusually sharp and detailed images of something one has seen
    eidetic imagery
  101. people with highly developed memory skills
    mnemonists
  102. a vivid memory of a certin event and the incidents surrounding it even after a long time has passed
    flashbulb memory
  103. a flexible system of communication that uses sounds, rules, gestures, or symbols to convey information
    language
  104. the basic sounds that make up any language
    phonemes
  105. the smallest meaningful units of speech, such as simple words, prefixes, and suffixes
    morphemes
  106. the language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language
    grammer
  107. a mental representation of a sensory experience
    image
  108. mental categories for classifying objects, people, or experiences
    concepts
  109. Whorf's idea that patterns of thinking are determined by the specific language one speaks
    linguistic relativity hypothesis
  110. The belief that thought and expreience are determined by language
    linguistic determinism
  111. stereotyped communications about an animal's current state
    signs
  112. the first step in solving a problem; it involves interpreting or defining the problem
    problem representation
  113. thinking that meets the criteria of originality, inventiveness, and flexibility.
    divergent thinking
  114. a step-by-step method of problem solving that guarantees a correct solution
    algorithm
  115. rules of thumb that help in simplifying and solvin problems, althouh they do not guarantee a corect solution
    heuristics
  116. a heuristic, problem-solving strategy in which each step moves you progressively closer to the final goal
    hill climbing
  117. intermediate, more manageable goals used in one heuristic strategy to make it easier to reach the final goal
    subgoals
  118. a heuristic strategy that aims to reduce the discrepancy between the current situation and the desired goal at a number of intermediate points
    means-end analysis
  119. a heuristic strategy in which one works backward from the desired goal to the given conditions
    working backward
  120. the tendency to perceive and to approach problems in certain ways
    mental set
  121. the tendency to perceive only a limited number of uses for an object, thus interfering with the process of problem solving
    functional fixedness
  122. a problem solving strategy in which an individual or a group produces numerous ideas and evaluates them only after all ideas have been collected
    brainstorming
  123. a rational dicision making model in which choices are systematically evaluated on various criteria
    compensatory model
  124. a heuristic by which a new situation is judged on the basis of its resemblance to a stereotypical model
    representativeness
  125. a heuristic by which a judgment or decistion is based on information that is most easily retrieved from memory
    availability
  126. the tendency to look for evidence in support of a belief and to ignore evidence that would disprove a belief
    confirmation bias
  127. the perspective from which we interpret information before making a decision
    framing
  128. the tendency to see outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we know the outcome
    hindsight bias
  129. thinking about alternative realities and things that never happened.
    counterfactual thinking
  130. a gernal term referring to the ability or abilities involved in leraning and adaptive behavior
    intelligence
  131. Sternberg's theory that intelligence involves mental skills, insight and creative adaptability, and environmental responsiveness
    triarchic theory of intelligence
  132. Howard Gardner's theory that there is not one intelligence, but rather many intelligences, each of which is relatively independent of the others
    theory of multiple intelligences
  133. according to Goleman, a form of intelligence that refers to how effectively people perceive and understand their own emotions and the emotions of others, and can regulate and manage their emotional behavior
    emotional intelligence
  134. A numerical value given to intelligence that is determined from the scores on an intelligence test on the basis of a score of 100 for average intelligence
    intelligence quotient
  135. an individual intelligence test developed especially for adults; measures both verbal and performance abilities
    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III)
  136. an individual intelligence test developed especially for school aged childeren; measures verbal and performance abilities and also yields an overal IQ score.
    Wechsler intelligence scale for children-third edition (WISC-III)
  137. written intelligence tests administered by one examiner to many people at one time
    group test
  138. intelligence tests that minimize the use of language
    performance tests
  139. intelligence tests designed to eliminate cultural bias by minimizing skills and values that vary from one culture to another
    culture-fair tests
  140. ability of a test to produce consistent and stable scores
    reliability
  141. a method of determining test reliability by dividing the test into two parts and checking the agreement of scores on both parts
    split-half reliability
  142. statistical measures of the degree of association between two variables
    correlations coefficients
  143. ability of a test to measure what it has been designed to measure
    validity
  144. refers to a test's having an adequate sample of questions measuring the skills or knowledge it is supposed to measure
    content validity
  145. validity of a test as measured by a comparison of the tst score and independent measures of what the test is designed to measure
    criterion-related validity
  146. condition of significantly subaverage intelligence combined with deficiencies in adaptive behavior
    mental retrardation
  147. refers to superior IQ combined with demonstrated or potential ability in such areas as academic aptitude, creativity and leadership
    giftedness
  148. theability to produce novel and socially valued ideas or objects
    creativity

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