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base pairs that make imino
what mutation do they make?
Cytosine and Adenime ( have amino groups) - CA!
- they cause transition mutation ( change purine for purin and pyrimidine for pyrimidine)
- C behaves like T (so imino form of C will complement base pair with A) , A behaves like G
base pairs that make enol
what do they behave like?
G and T
the also cause transition mutation
base analogue of thymine
more common than what form of thymine?
more common than the enol form of thymine
this test use back mutation.
used to find out the % if carcinogens that are also mutagens (what %?)
Ames test, 80%
simplest alkylating agent
DMS (dimethyl sulphate)
major cause of human cancer
extreme skin sensitivity to UV
AP endonucleases cleave
ends with what enzyme
cleave the DNA adjacent to apurinic and apyrimidic site ( at the 5' end of DNA)
ligase sesals the nick
for repairing the deamination of cytosine to uracil
break the glycosidic bond between the U and deoxyribose
sequences of enzymes used after Uracil -DNA glycosylase
AP endonuclease, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase
what happens if cytosine go through deamination to hypoxanthine
hypoxanthine glycosylase removes hypoxanthine from DNA
hypoxanthine base pairs with what
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