Neuro Test 1

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leoisbored
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208108
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Neuro Test 1
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2013-03-18 21:20:23
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  1. Which method to open airways?
    Jaw thrust maneuver
  2. lumbar puncture in which position
    Knee chest
  3. ICP what s/s
    • increase temp
    • decrease pulse
    • decrease resp
    • increase b/p
  4. ICP what position to avoid?
    head turned to side
  5. a client from head injury is aroused and participating in care. nurse determines that pt understants to prevent ICP when client does what during activities
    exhauling during respiration
  6. Clear luquid from nose following a basilar skull fracture. the nurse determines that this is a CSF if the fluid
    seperates into concentric rings and test positive for gluscoe
  7. Pt was in accident when should the cervical collar be removed
    When results of spinal x-rays is known
  8. pt was tx of a concussion. family gets taught to bring him back when the client has a
    minor HA
  9. What are the two divisions of the central nervous system?
    • Central nervous system
    • Peripheral nervous system
  10. What is the central nervous system?
    It is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. it is responsible for interpreting incoming sensory information and issuing instructions based on past experiences
  11. What is the peripheral nervous system and the two divisions?
    • It is the nervous system that lies outside the CNS
    • somatic nervous sytem
    • autonomic nervous system
  12. What is the somatic nervous system?
    it sends messages from the CNS to the skeletal muscles which are voluntary muscles.
  13. what is the autonomic nervous system? what is it also called?
    • it trasmits messages from the CNS to the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and certain glands.
    • Its also called the involuntary nervous sytem
  14. What are neurons?
    are the transmitter cells. they carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord.
  15. what are neuroglial or glial cells?
    they support cells to the neurons. They protect the neurons while producing CSF.
  16. What is an axon?
    is a cynlindric extension of a nerve cell that conducts impulses away from the neuron cell body
  17. what is a dendrite?
    are branching structures that extend from a cell body and receive impulses
  18. what is a synapse
    its between each neuron is a gap, which is a region surrounding the point of contect between two neurons or between a neuron and effector organs, across the neurotransmitters transmit impulses
  19. what is a "all or none law"
    there is never a partial transmission of a message its either strong or no transmission
  20. What does acetycholine role in nerve impulse transmission
    it spills into the synapse area and speeds the transmission of the impulse.
  21. what is norepinephrine
    has an effect on maintaining arousal, dreaming, and regulation of mood
  22. what is dopamine in the nerves
    primarily affects motor function. it is involved in gross subconscious movements of the skeletal muscles
  23. what is serotonin
    it induces sleep, affects sensory perception, controls temperature, and has a role in control of mood
  24. what does the cranium do?
    protect the brain
  25. what does the vertebral column do?
    protects the spinal cords
  26. Cerebrum is divided in how many hemispheres
    2
  27. what is the outer layer of the cerebrum composed of
    gray matter which is called cerebral cortex
  28. what is gyri
    folds of cerebral cortex
  29. what is sulci
    groves of the cerebral cortex
  30. what is the basal ganglia
    it is the one that controls the autonomic movements of the body associated with skeletal muscle activity
  31. what does the diencephalon contain
    it contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus
  32. what is the thalamus
    serves as a relay station on the way to the cerebral cortex for some sensory impulses which interpret pain, light touch or even pressure
  33. what is the hypothalamus
    it lies beneath the thalamus it plays a vital role in the control of body temperature, fluid balance, appetite, sleep and certain emotions such as fear, pleasure and pain
  34. both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions are control by the
    hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
  35. what is the cerebellum
    it is mainly responsible for coordination of voluntary movement and maintenance of balance, equilibrium, and muscle tone
  36. where is the brainstem located and what does it contain
    • the base of the brain
    • midbrain, pons, and the medulla oblongata
  37. what is the function of the brainstem
    it carries all nerve fibers between the spinal cord and the cerebrum
  38. what is the midbrain?
    cranial nerves?
    • it merges with the hypothalamus and the thalamus. It is responsible for motor movement, relay of impulses and suditory and visual reflexes.
    • cranial nerves 3-4
  39. what are pons?
    Cranial nerves?
    • responsible for sending impulses to the structures that are inferior and superior to it.
    • cranial nerves 5-8
    • ON TEST
  40. Medulla oblongata is?
    cranial nerves
    • controls heartbeat, rhythm of breathing, swallowing, sneezing, vomitting and hiccups
    • cranial nerves 9-12
  41. What is expressive aphasia?
    Strokes affecting Brocas areas of the brain cause difficulty in speaking and writing
  42. what is receptive aphasia
    it a patient has a stoke that affects Wernickes center in the brain which is difficulty comprehending the spoken and written language
  43. Cerebralspinal fluidis?
    acts as a protective cushion and aids in the exchange of nutrients and wastes
  44. where is the CSF secreted
    in the ventricles and it circulates in the subarachnoid space and through the ventricles to the subarachoid layer of the meninges, where it is absorbed
  45. what is a ascending nerve tract
    sensory pathway
  46. what is a descending nerve path
    motor pathway
  47. what does the sympathetic nervous system do
    fibers dilate pupils, increase heart rate and rhythm, contract blood vessels and relax smooth muscles of the bronchi
  48. what does the parasympathetic do?
    constrict pupils, decrease heart rate and rhythm, dilate blood vessels and does not relax smooth muscle of the bronchi
  49. pt is suspected of spinal injury what to do?
    maintain immobilization of the neck
  50. lumbar puncture is an insertion
    of a spinal needle through the L3-L4 interspace into the lumbar subarachnoid space to obtain CSF.
  51. lumbar puncture is contraindicated with
    pt with ICP because the procedure willl cause rapid decrease in pressure within the CSF around the spinal cord leading to brain hemmorage
  52. Postprocedure interventions of a lumbar puncture for position
    lay patient flat
  53. What is a myelogram
    injection of dye or air into the subarachnoid space to detect abnormalities of the spinal cord or vertebrae
  54. preprocedure for myelogram remember to
    • provide hydration for 12hrs before test
    • acess for allergies of iodine
  55. postprocedure of myelogram
    • assess vitals
    • bed rest 6-8hrs
    • encourage fluids
    • monitor I&O
  56. what are lumbar punctures used for
    • obtain CSF
    • measure CSF fluid or pressure
    • instill air, dye or medications
  57. enlargement of what lobe helps autobiographical memory
    Temporal lobe (not sure)

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