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Which method to open airways?
Jaw thrust maneuver
lumbar puncture in which position
ICP what s/s
- increase temp
- decrease pulse
- decrease resp
- increase b/p
ICP what position to avoid?
head turned to side
a client from head injury is aroused and participating in care. nurse determines that pt understants to prevent ICP when client does what during activities
exhauling during respiration
Clear luquid from nose following a basilar skull fracture. the nurse determines that this is a CSF if the fluid
seperates into concentric rings and test positive for gluscoe
Pt was in accident when should the cervical collar be removed
When results of spinal x-rays is known
pt was tx of a concussion. family gets taught to bring him back when the client has a
What are the two divisions of the central nervous system?
- Central nervous system
- Peripheral nervous system
What is the central nervous system?
It is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. it is responsible for interpreting incoming sensory information and issuing instructions based on past experiences
What is the peripheral nervous system and the two divisions?
- It is the nervous system that lies outside the CNS
- somatic nervous sytem
- autonomic nervous system
What is the somatic nervous system?
it sends messages from the CNS to the skeletal muscles which are voluntary muscles.
what is the autonomic nervous system? what is it also called?
- it trasmits messages from the CNS to the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and certain glands.
- Its also called the involuntary nervous sytem
What are neurons?
are the transmitter cells. they carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord.
what are neuroglial or glial cells?
they support cells to the neurons. They protect the neurons while producing CSF.
What is an axon?
is a cynlindric extension of a nerve cell that conducts impulses away from the neuron cell body
what is a dendrite?
are branching structures that extend from a cell body and receive impulses
what is a synapse
its between each neuron is a gap, which is a region surrounding the point of contect between two neurons or between a neuron and effector organs, across the neurotransmitters transmit impulses
what is a "all or none law"
there is never a partial transmission of a message its either strong or no transmission
What does acetycholine role in nerve impulse transmission
it spills into the synapse area and speeds the transmission of the impulse.
what is norepinephrine
has an effect on maintaining arousal, dreaming, and regulation of mood
what is dopamine in the nerves
primarily affects motor function. it is involved in gross subconscious movements of the skeletal muscles
what is serotonin
it induces sleep, affects sensory perception, controls temperature, and has a role in control of mood
what does the cranium do?
protect the brain
what does the vertebral column do?
protects the spinal cords
Cerebrum is divided in how many hemispheres
what is the outer layer of the cerebrum composed of
gray matter which is called cerebral cortex
what is gyri
folds of cerebral cortex
what is sulci
groves of the cerebral cortex
what is the basal ganglia
it is the one that controls the autonomic movements of the body associated with skeletal muscle activity
what does the diencephalon contain
it contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus
what is the thalamus
serves as a relay station on the way to the cerebral cortex for some sensory impulses which interpret pain, light touch or even pressure
what is the hypothalamus
it lies beneath the thalamus it plays a vital role in the control of body temperature, fluid balance, appetite, sleep and certain emotions such as fear, pleasure and pain
both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions are control by the
hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
what is the cerebellum
it is mainly responsible for coordination of voluntary movement and maintenance of balance, equilibrium, and muscle tone
where is the brainstem located and what does it contain
- the base of the brain
- midbrain, pons, and the medulla oblongata
what is the function of the brainstem
it carries all nerve fibers between the spinal cord and the cerebrum
what is the midbrain?
- it merges with the hypothalamus and the thalamus. It is responsible for motor movement, relay of impulses and suditory and visual reflexes.
- cranial nerves 3-4
what are pons?
- responsible for sending impulses to the structures that are inferior and superior to it.
- cranial nerves 5-8
- ON TEST
Medulla oblongata is?
- controls heartbeat, rhythm of breathing, swallowing, sneezing, vomitting and hiccups
- cranial nerves 9-12
What is expressive aphasia?
Strokes affecting Brocas areas of the brain cause difficulty in speaking and writing
what is receptive aphasia
it a patient has a stoke that affects Wernickes center in the brain which is difficulty comprehending the spoken and written language
acts as a protective cushion and aids in the exchange of nutrients and wastes
where is the CSF secreted
in the ventricles and it circulates in the subarachnoid space and through the ventricles to the subarachoid layer of the meninges, where it is absorbed
what is a ascending nerve tract
what is a descending nerve path
what does the sympathetic nervous system do
fibers dilate pupils, increase heart rate and rhythm, contract blood vessels and relax smooth muscles of the bronchi
what does the parasympathetic do?
constrict pupils, decrease heart rate and rhythm, dilate blood vessels and does not relax smooth muscle of the bronchi
pt is suspected of spinal injury what to do?
maintain immobilization of the neck
lumbar puncture is an insertion
of a spinal needle through the L3-L4 interspace into the lumbar subarachnoid space to obtain CSF.
lumbar puncture is contraindicated with
pt with ICP because the procedure willl cause rapid decrease in pressure within the CSF around the spinal cord leading to brain hemmorage
Postprocedure interventions of a lumbar puncture for position
lay patient flat
What is a myelogram
injection of dye or air into the subarachnoid space to detect abnormalities of the spinal cord or vertebrae
preprocedure for myelogram remember to
- provide hydration for 12hrs before test
- acess for allergies of iodine
postprocedure of myelogram
- assess vitals
- bed rest 6-8hrs
- encourage fluids
- monitor I&O
what are lumbar punctures used for
- obtain CSF
- measure CSF fluid or pressure
- instill air, dye or medications
enlargement of what lobe helps autobiographical memory
Temporal lobe (not sure)