10 Steps of Glycolysis
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- glucose + ATP ---> glucose 6-phosphate + ADP + Hplus
- glucose is phosphorylated by ATP to form sugar phosphate. the negative charge of phosphate keeps glucose inside the cell
Step 2 ?
- glucose 6-phoshate ---> frutose 6-phosphate
- phosphoglucose isomerase
- Isomerization moves the carbonyl oxygen from C1 to C2, forming ketose from aldose sugar
Step 3 ?
- fructose 6-phosphate + ATP ---> fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + ATP + Hplus
- OH on C1 is phosphorylated by ATP, prepare to form two 3C sugar phosphate.
What is important in step 3 ?
the entry of sugars into Glycolysis is controlled at this step, through regulation of the enzyme Phosphofrutockinase
Step 4 ?
- Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate ---> Dihdroxyacetone phosphate +Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphaste.
- 6C sugar cleaved into two 3C molecule. But only Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate can proceed through glycolysis
Step 5 ?
- Dihydroxyaceton phosphate ----> Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
- triose phosphate isomerase
- dihydroxyacetone phosphate is isomerized to form glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
- glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + NADlus + phosphate group ---> 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
- glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
- 2 molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are oxidized.
what is important in step 6 ?
the energy generation phase of glycoysis begins, as NADH and a new high energy anhydride linkage to phosphate are formed.
Step 7 ?
- 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + ATP ---> 3-phosphoglycerate + ATP
- phosphoglycerate kinase
- transfer to ADP of the high energy phosphate group that was generated in step 6 forms ATP
Step 8 ?
- 3-phosphoglycerate ---> 2-phosphoglycerate
- phosphoglycerate mutase
- phosphate ester linkage in 3-phosphoglycerate has low energy of hydrolysis, move from C3 to C2
Step 9 ?
- 2-phosphoglycerate ---> phosphoenolpyruvate
- the removal of water from 2-phosphoglycerate creates a high energy enol phosphate linkage
Step 10 ?
- phosphoenolpyruvate + ATP + Hplus ---> pyruvate + ATP
- pyruvate kinase
- the transfer to ADP of the high energy phosphate group that was generated in step 9 forms ATP, completing glycolysis
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