10 Steps of Glycolysis

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Author:
nganle
ID:
208146
Filename:
10 Steps of Glycolysis
Updated:
2013-03-18 21:54:20
Tags:
Glycolysis
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Description:
Cell Biology
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  1. Step 1?
    • glucose + ATP ---> glucose 6-phosphate + ADP + Hplus
    • hexokinase
    • glucose is phosphorylated by ATP to form sugar phosphate. the negative charge of phosphate keeps glucose inside the cell
  2. Step 2 ?
    • glucose 6-phoshate ---> frutose 6-phosphate
    • phosphoglucose isomerase
    • Isomerization moves the carbonyl oxygen from C1 to C2, forming ketose from aldose sugar
  3. Step 3 ?
    • fructose 6-phosphate + ATP ---> fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + ATP + Hplus
    • phosphofructokinase
    • OH on C1 is phosphorylated by ATP, prepare to form two 3C sugar phosphate.
  4. What is important in step 3 ?
    the entry of sugars into Glycolysis is controlled at this step, through regulation of the enzyme Phosphofrutockinase
  5. Step 4 ?
    • Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate ---> Dihdroxyacetone phosphate +Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphaste.
    • Aldolase
    • 6C sugar cleaved into two 3C molecule. ┬áBut only Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate can proceed through glycolysis
  6. Step 5 ?
    • Dihydroxyaceton phosphate ----> Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
    • triose phosphate isomerase
    • dihydroxyacetone phosphate is isomerized to form glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
  7. Step 6
    • glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + NADlus + phosphate group ---> 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
    • glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
    • 2 molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate are oxidized.
  8. what is important in step 6 ?
    the energy generation phase of glycoysis begins, as NADH and a new high energy anhydride linkage to phosphate are formed.
  9. Step 7 ?
    • 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate + ATP ---> 3-phosphoglycerate + ATP
    • phosphoglycerate kinase
    • transfer to ADP of the high energy phosphate group that was generated in step 6 forms ATP
  10. Step 8 ?
    • 3-phosphoglycerate ---> 2-phosphoglycerate
    • phosphoglycerate mutase
    • phosphate ester linkage in 3-phosphoglycerate has low energy of hydrolysis, move from C3 to C2
  11. Step 9 ?
    • 2-phosphoglycerate ---> phosphoenolpyruvate
    • enolase
    • the removal of water from 2-phosphoglycerate creates a high energy enol phosphate linkage
  12. Step 10 ?
    • phosphoenolpyruvate + ATP + Hplus ---> pyruvate + ATP
    • pyruvate kinase
    • the transfer to ADP of the high energy phosphate group that was generated in step 9 forms ATP, completing glycolysis

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