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What are the steps for "how to welcome students to school?"
- Have a school newspaper full of school spirit
- Organize a first day celebration
- Stand at the bus stop and welcome them
- Stand at the front entrances of the school and welcome them
- Have the band play near the entrance
- No band? Have a group of students and teachers assembled to bring a welcome smile
- Hang a banner welcoming the students
- Have guides in the hallways
- Have name & room # visible on doors along with your personal greeting
- Let the first message over the PA system be one of welcome and positive expectations for the school year
What must we TEACH & SHOW our students?
- That we can be responsible for one another
- That school is a place to gain knowledge
- That school is a place to give and receive love
- That school is a place to become successful
What are the 4 main effects that should dress for?
Respect, credibility, acceptance, & authority
The effective teacher is committed to seeing all people as ____, _____,_____, and _____ untapped potential in all worthwhile areas of human endeavor
The effective teacher is committed to seeing all people as able, valuable, responsible, and possessing untapped potential in all worthwhile areas of human endeavor
How to make your classroom inviting
- Mark your door clearly
- Post welcome/info signs
- Have the assignments written clear and understandable
- Have items that show you care for young people
What are the four levels of invitations?
- First: intentionally disinviting
- Second: unintentionally disinviting
- Third: unintentionally inviting
- Fourth: intentionally inviting
Describe the first level of invitations
- Intentionally disinviting: this is the bottom level were teachers deliberately demean, discourage, defeat, & dissuade students
- Ex: "why do you bother coming to school?"
Describe the second level of invitations
- Unintentionally disinviting: some teachers are oblivious to the fact that they are negative people they feel that they are well-meaning but are seen by others as condescending, racist, sexist, patronizing or thoughtless
- Ex: "I teach only students who want to learn."
Describe the third level of invitations
- Unintentionally inviting: these are the "natural-born teachers" generally well-liked & effective but are unaware of why they are effective
- Ex: "aren't you sweet" & "just try harder"
Describe the fourth level of invitations
- Intentionally inviting: they have a professional attitude, work diligently & consistently, & strive to be more effective teachers
- Ex: "if you try this, you will be sensational" & "would you like to help me?"
What are the 5 significant concepts that enhance positive expectations?
Name, please, thank you, smile, & love
What is the most important thing to establish in the first week of school?
What are the 3 things that having control in your class mean?
- You know what you are doing
- You know your classroom procedures
- You know your professional responsibilities
What are the four stages of teaching?
- Stage 1: fantasy
- Stage 2: survival
- Stage 3: mastery
- Stage 4: impact
Describe stage 1 of the four stages of teaching
Fantasy: many new teachers have the naive belief that to be a successful teacher, all they need to do is relate and be a friend to their students. They rarely talk about standards, assessment, or student achievement
Describe stage 2 of the four stages of teaching
Survival: teachers in this stage have not developed instructional skills. They spend their time looking for busywork for the students to do, such as worksheets, videos & doing seat-work -- anything to keep the students quiet
Describe stage 3 of the four stages of teaching
Mastery: teachers who know how to achieve student success employ effective practices. These teachers know how to manage their classrooms. They teach for mastery & have high expectations for their students
Describe stage 4 of the four stages of teaching
Impact: effective teachers make a difference in the lives of their students. These are the teachers to whom students come back years later & thank for affecting their lives
What are the 3 characteristics of an effective teacher?
- Have positive expectations for student success
- Is an extremely good classroom manager
- Knows how to design lessons for student mastery
To teach for mastery or competence, an effective teacher must do what 3 things?
- Know how to design lessons in which a student will be able to learn a concept or a skill to a goal or standard
- Know how to deliver the instruction to teach to the goal or standard
- Know how to assess & provide corrective action for learning so the student can master the concept or the skill
What is the biggest secret to teaching success?
Beg, borrow, & steal (not really stealing but research & learning)
If you want positive results from your professional career what do you need to know?
- That your colleagues are your best resource:
- Work in a collegial manner with your colleagues
- Associate with & learn from positive mentors & coaches
- Join a professional organization
- Continue to learn through classes, workshops, conferences, professional meetings, books, journals, CDs, DVDs
Schools that work on closing the achievement gap maintain what characteristics?
- Keep a laser focus on learning for all students
- Maintain a "no excuses" attitude
- Use research & data to improve teacher practices
- Involve everyone in improvement processes
- Persist through difficulties & setbacks
- Celebrate accomplishments
What are the 4 beliefs of an effective teacher?
- It is the teacher who makes the difference in the classroom
- By far the most important factor in school learning is the ability of the teacher
- There is an extensive body of research and knowledge about teaching that must be known by the teacher
- The teacher must be a decision maker, able to translate the research & body of knowledge
What are the students rights in the classroom? (Canter method)
- Learn in a safe environment
- Be taught clearly how they are to behave
- Have limits on their behavior that is enforced
What are the teachers rights in the classroom? (Canter method)
- Teach in environment free from disruptions
- Teach in ways that are to their strengths
- Receive backing from parents and administrators
What are the traits of assertive teachers? (Canter method)
- Leaders in classroom
- Clearly communicate expectations
- Care enough about themselves not to allow students to disrupt teaching
- Care enough about students to not allow them to behave badly (students best interest)
What are the actions of assertive teachers? (Canter method)
- Specify expectations clearly
- Set and enforce limits on students behavior
- Use hints and eye-messages to change behavior
- Interact with students on why they have rules
- When misbehavior occurs => follow through with punishment
What are the steps that lead to discipline? (Canter method)
- Recognize and remove road blocks
- Negative expectations on behaviors
- Negative expectations about being able to give positive influence
- Belief that one function in isolation
- Practice assertive response styles different among
- Non-assertive comments ex: would you please stop that
- Hostile comments ex: you either do it or you will regret it
- Assertive comments ex: its against our rules to be disruptive this is a warning
- Make a discipline plan that contains clear rules, positive recognitions, and effective consequences with the class
- Discuss clear rules
- Discuss examples of positive recognition
- Discuss examples of effective consequences
- Teach the discipline plan to students
- Teach the plan, expectations, positive recognition, and consequences through explanation and demonstration
- Teach students how to behave responsibility
- Demonstrate exactly how they are to behave and have them role play to show understanding
How do you deal with misbehavior? (Canter method)
- No consequences need to be invoked
- Make eye-contact
- Stand by them
- Say their name
- Praise a student not misbehaving
- Invoking consequences
- Follow your plan calmly
- Be consistent
- Provide an escape ex: allowing the student to write about the behavior problem
- Give the good students positive recognition
- Dealing with difficult students
- For repeats => use one-on-one problem solving conferences
- Try to build positive relationships with students by giving them personal attention, spending time with them, and visiting home
What are the five major principles that teachers must accept? (Curwin & Mendler model)
- An important part of teaching is dealing with misbehavior
- Student dignity must be preserved
- Lasting results are only achieved over time
- Good discipline must not interfere with motivation
- Responsibility is more important than obedience
What are the Do's and Don'ts of the Principles of Discipline? (Curwin & Mendler method)
- Do's: teach as much good behavior as bad
- Treat students with dignity (show concern, understanding)
- Provide opportunities for students to exercise responsibility
- Look for ways to help student
- Don'ts: rely on short-term solutions (write their names on board etc.)
- Use discipline that could damage students motivation to learn
What are the 3 Dimensions of an effective disciple plan? (Curwin & Mendler method)
- Prevention Dimension:
- Develop clear, brief rules
- Establish a list of consequences
- Ask students to agree and sign a social contract
- Treat students as individuals
- Action Dimension:
- Look upon the situation as an opportunity to interact productivity with the students
- Invoke consequences but avoid power struggles
- Remain positive and mindful of student dignity
- Resolution Dimension:
- Try to find out what will prevent the problems occurring again
- With the student make a plan for future positive action
- Implement and monitor the plan
What are the main techniques used in the Dreikurs method?
Democratic techniques: sharing ideas, inviting students to cooperative learning, including students in decisions, recognizing mistaken goals on behavior, and showing responsibility
What are the mistaken goals and teacher emotions correlation from the Dreikurs method?
- Mistaken goal --> Teacher emotion
- Attention getting --> annoyed
- Power seeking --> threatened
- Revenge seeking --> hurt
- Displaying inadequacy --> powerless
What is the main idea behind the Jones method?
- BLIEH: Body Language Incentive & Efficient Help
- "Be positive, be brief, be gone."
What are the four key points to group behavior according to the Redl & Wattenberg Model?
- People behave differently when they are in groups than they do as individuals
- Group expectations influence an individuals behavior.
- If someone leaves or joins a group, the behavior of the group changes.
- Everyone in a group plays a different role.
What are the five roles found in groups according to the Redl & Wattenberg model?
- Leaders natural and appointed
- Class Clown
- Fall Guys takes blame to gain popularity in the group
- Instigator Cause trouble yet appears innocent
- Scapegoat is blamed for everything, often picked on by the group
What are the 5 steps of diagnostic thinking from the Redl & Wattenberg method?
- 1. Form a first hunch (What is the probable cause?)
- 2. Gather facts (Facts that are evident)
- 3. Apply hidden factors (Any background behavior)
- 4. Take Action
- 5. Remain Flexible (correct mistakes or take a new action if old doesnt work)
What are the influence techniques to correct behavior from the Redl & Watterberg method?
- 1. Support student self-control - send hand signals, use physical proximity, use humor, ignore minor infractions, and show interest in students work
- 2. Provide situational assistance - change times schedule/routine, remove student from situation
- 3. Reward good behavior and as a last resort punish bad behavior
- 4. Conduct reality appraisal - help student consider the cause and effect of their bad behavior
What does the Jacob Kounin (Preventative Model) concentrate on?
Cause & effect relationships between teacher acts and student behaviors
What is a process of correction in which the teachers correction of one student affects the behavior of others? (Jacob Kounin Model)
What is known as knowledge demonstrated by the teacher that he/she knows exactly what is going on in all of the class? (Jacob Kounin Model)
What is known as the pacing and momentum within lessons and the transition from one to another? (Jacob Kounin Model)
What are the different movement styles from the Jacob Kounin Model?
Pacing, momentum, transition, & overlapping
What are the 3 preventable scenarios from the Jacob Kounin Model?
The Jacob Kounin Model is also known for individual accountability and what?
Describe the Fish Bowl method
- Teacher creates a higher thinking question
- Students are divided into heterogeneous groups & given the Q
- After groups have had time to discuss the different sides of the Q assign roles to each group
- After the groups have had time to discuss the Q with assigned role, assign fish
- Arrange the desks where the fish are in the middle plus one empty chair & the rest create an outer circle
- Each fish will present the groups view
- Outer circle group members take notes
- After all fish have presented, 5 minute is given for preparation of rebuttal
- Fish present rebuttals
- Then begin the closure process: Class discussion, writings, Qs (individual or group), writing, webs, research assignment, & other...
What are some advantages to doing Fish Bowl?
- Quiets those who monopolize
- Allows quiet student to speak confidently
- Can be made into cooperative learning activity
- Elicits higher level thinking
- Encourages students to understand other viewpoints
- Accommodates diverse learners/culturally responsive
- Encourages team work
What are some disadvantages to doing Fish Bowl?
- Time consuming
- Requires social skills
- Difficult to assess
- Difficult to manage with absentees
What does STAD stand for?
Is STAD lower or higher level thinking?
What are the steps of STAD?
- Material is taught by teacher
- Students are put in heterogeneous home groups
- Directions are given (team building, what to do, grading, and bonus)
- Team building is done
- Study material is distributed to each group
- Home teams study together
- Students take individual quiz
- Quizzes are graded
- Teams average their scores
- Teams are recognized
- Group processing is done
What are the steps of six hat thinking?
- A problem or scenario is presented
- Students are either put in small groups or the whole class is treated as one group
- The teacher asks students to explore the problem using the red hat, then the white hat, then the black hat etc.
- Discussion is done so that the different viewpoints are noted
What are the six hat colors and meanings for six hat thinking?
- Blue: sets goals & objectives; rarely used in schools
- Red: emotions; intuitive or instinctive gut reactions
- White: consider facts
- Black: logic applied to identifying reasons to be cautious/wary
- Yellow: logic applied to identifying benefits
- Green: generates possible new ideas and solutions; creative thinking
What does TGT stand for?
What are the main difference between TGT and the other methods that have been covered in class?
- NO individual accountability
- COMPETITION between students and between groups
- Also, home group is heterogeneous while the tournament table is homogenous
What are the steps of TGT?
- 1 teacher teaches material
- 2 students are ranked according to academic ability
- 3 home groups are formed with heterogeneous groups
- 4 team building is done; directions are given
- 5 home teams study Qs together & help each other learn material
- 6 students are put at tournament tables; they compete with those at their level (originally, all tournament table members come from different home groups)
- 7 Qs are called out & each person writes down his/her answer; tournament table members check everyone's answer as answers are given by teacher
- 8 students at tables keep track of points for each student
- 9 a student gets a point for each Q answered correctly
- 10 scores are totaled at the end of the day and given to the teacher
- 11 teacher changes tournament tables for the next set of games. The person with the highest score at the tournament table moves up to the next table; the person with the lowest score at the table moves down a table. The middle person stays at the table.
- 12 the next tournament begins as new members are assigned to different tournament tables based on their previous performance; Qs are asked, scores are kept as before
- 13 after games/tournaments are done, each student, with the total points he/she earned, returns to the home group where all scores are totaled
- 14 home groups are recognized based on the total points the members earned
- 15 group processing is done
What are the activities for a tutoring lesson plan?
- Introduction to tutoring/explain roles
- Assign groups
- Give out directions
- Give out materials
- Team building
- Facilitate tutoring 1
- Facilitate tutoring 2
- Ask students to return to desks
- Distribute quiz
- Facilitate quiz taking
- Facilitate grading and averaging
- Recognize teams
- Distribute Group Processing Forms
What is the basic layout for the lesson plan?
- I. Objective
- II. Activities (2 columns)
- III. Resources (Materials)
- IV. Evaluation
What are the four parts of an objective?
- Condition (Learning or Testing)
What are the 4 characteristics of a well-managed classroom?
- Students are deeply involved with their work, especially with academic, teacher-led instruction
- Students know what is expected of them and are generally successful
- There is relatively little wasted time, confusion, or disruption
- The climate of the classroom is work-oriented but relaxed and pleasant
What are the 4 basic rules of organization?
- Separate school from personal work
- Clear your desktop
- Create a place for incoming and outgoing papers
How to greet students on day 1
- Have your name, room number, section/period (if appropriate), grade level or subject, and a welcome sign
- Stand at the door and greet them with a smile, hand ready to shake, and have an expression that says you can't wait to meet them
- As they stand there wondering you are the correct teacher/room tell them your name, room number, section/period, maybe seating assignment
- Check the students schedule to see if they are in the correct place
- After you greet the student, they should be able to see the info displayed in the room (your name, room number, section/period, grade level/subject, and an appropriate welcome)
How to help students find their assigned seats
- Have names on place cards on the desks
- Have names written on a seating chart transparency/PowerPoint projected on the screen
- As you greet students at the door, give them an index card with a letter and a number on it (A1, A2 ...)
How to make your first request effective
- Check each students schedule at the door
- Put a friendly smile on your face
- Look each student in the eyes and verbally welcome and acknowledge each one
- Lower your voice to a firm but soft tone. Speak slowly and tell the student if seating is open or assigned
- Follow this with "when you sit down, you will find an activity on your desk. I think you will enjoy doing it. Please begin working on it right away. Thank you."
What are some reasons for a seating chart?
- Facilitates roll taking
- Aids name memorization
- Separates problem students
What are the three basic records that can be kept in a grade book?
- Running total
What are the three key concepts in the value of using a behavior contract?
What are the 3 steps to teaching procedure?
- Explain: state, explain, model...
- Rehearse: practice the procedure
- Reinforce: reteach, rehearse, practice...
What are different methods for getting the teacher's attention without interrupting the class?
- Hand signals: holding up different fingers to mean restroom etc.
- Toilet tissue tube: holding up different color tubes
- Styrofoam cup: holding the cup in different positions
- Index card: holding up an index card with a short message
- Textbook: holding up the book upright
How to structure group activities
- Specify the group name
- Specify the group size
- State the purpose, materials, and steps of the activity
- Teach the procedures
- Insist on individual accountability for the work of the group
- Teach evaluation methods the students can use to determine how successfully they have worked together