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The first permanent English colony in North America was Jamestown, Virginia founded in 1607. It was a business venture of the Virginia Company of London, an English firm that planned to make money by sending people to America to find gold and other valuable natural resources and then ship the resources back to England. Initially, the colony suffered from a lack of leadership and profitable enterprises which resulted in starvation and near failure of the colony. In order to induce Englishmen to come to the Virginia Colony, the company instituted a series of changes that helped the colony grow. The company’s monopoly on land was lessened which allowed the colonists to acquire land for themselves. English common law was imposed and eventually a measure of self-government was allowed. At this point, more women and families began to come to come to Virginia
Tobacco Cultivation Changed Virginia
There was no gold in the Jamestown colony, but John Rolf successfully cross-bred native strains of tobacco with West Indian tobacco. Tobacco quickly became a major cash crop and an important source of wealth in Virginia.Tobacco cultivation was labor-intensive, so Indentured servants worked for a land owner in exchange for their passage to the New World in hopes of eventually claiming their own land. Tensions began to develop over the continual need to supply land to newly freed indentured servants. African slaves were introduced to the Virginia Colony in 1619. Eventually, plantation owners came to rely on African slaves as a more profitable and renewable source of labor. As a result, Virginia’s colonial economy became highly dependent on slavery.
House of Burgesses
a legislative assembly that was similar to England’s Parliament created by the Virginia Company. It was the first European-style legislative body in the New World. it was the first self-government in the colonies
Nathaniel Bacon led a revolt of former indentured servants who wanted harsher action against the Native Americans in retaliation for their attacks on outlying settlements. the rebellion had the effect of further weakening the indenture system while strengthening the reliance on slavery.
Relations with Native Americans
Relations between the colonists and Native Americans in Virginia went from wariness to assistance to all-out war. A strong confederacy of Native-American tribes, led by Powhatan, existed in the Virginia region. Initially wary of the colonists, ultimately a trade relationship developed between the local Native Americans and the English. However, as the colony began to expand, especially with the development of tobacco culture, Native Americans were increasingly in conflict with the colony. After unsuccessful attempts by the Powhatan Confederacy to drive the colonists out, many Native Americans fled the region and sought new places to live
Settlement of New England
the New England colonies were established by Pilgrims at Plymouth and the Puritans settled around present-day Boston. Both groups faced increased persecution for their desire to reform the Anglican Church and their opposition to the growing power of the English monarchy.
Relations with Native Americans in coastal regions of New England
Initially things were cordial, each side engaged in profitable trade of goods. But as the English colony grew so did the tension between the puritans of Boston area and the native Americans resulting in King Phillip's War, named for the regional leader of the Indians. Many colonists died in the war, but it also caused a heavy loss of life among the Native American population. As a result, large areas of southern New England were opened to English settlement
Since church membership was a requirement for voting, Puritan ministers encouraged to allow partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of the original Puritans, who had not experienced a conversion experience. As a result, these “half way” church members were allowed the opportunity to participate in the governance of the colony.
Opposition to Puritan Rule
Because of their strict religious beliefs, Puritans would often exile those who believed different that them. Roger Williams, an exile of the Puritans, worked with like-minded individuals to found the colony of Rhode Island. As a result, Rhode Island would come to be known as a colony more tolerant of different religious beliefs.
the Dominion of New England.
To get more control over trade with the colonies, James II combined British colonies throughout New England into a single territory. James appointed his own governor, Sir Edmund Andros. The reformed colonial structure governed as a royal colony. The colonists in this territory disliked this authority and overthrew the royal governor. Events in England led to the dissolution of the Dominion of New England, but Massachusetts remained a royal colony.
Salem Witch Trials
The incident began when three girls, ill with symptoms including convulsions and “fits”, accused several local residents of using witchcraft to cause the illness. Of the 150 accused, 29 were convicted and 19 hanged. At least six more people died in prison. causes of the Salem Witch Trials included extreme religious faith, stress from a growing population, deteriorating relations with Native Americans, and the narrow opportunities for women and girls to participate in Puritan society
Development of the Mid-Atlantic Colonies—New York
the dutch originally founded the colony of New Amsterdam, which included parts of present day New York, Conn, and New Jersey. Founded as a private money making venture, the colony quickly became profitable and as a result of the Anglo-Dutch War (1664), the English gained control of it and renamed the largest part new york. Dutch peoples would still remain in newly won english area and greatly contribute to it's prosperity
French settlement of Quebec
French sought a northwest passage around North America for a shorter trade route to Asian markets. Failure to find such a route led the French to establish a trading post to acquire the area’s valuable natural resources and export them to Europe. Quebec was the first permanent French settlement in North America.
The Southern colonies
were noted for their rich soils in the coastal regions and along the river valleys. a long growing season meant that southern farmers could often produce two crops each year.Deep rivers and the distance of the Fall Line from the coast meant that inland farmers were able to ship tobacco, indigo, corn, and rice directly from their farms to European markets. The economic development of the southern colonies reflected this geological line.North of the Fall Line tended to be populated by subsistence family farms. These farms grew primarily what was needed to live along with a cash crop used to purchase or barter for trade goods. South of the Fall Line, commercial farms developed that grew primarily labor intensive cash crops such as rice, tobacco, and indigo. As a result, slave labor was more common south of the Fall Line while less common north of the same line.
The Middle Colonies
harbor and river systems significantly shaped their development.The Hudson and Delaware Rivers provided highways to the interior of North America. Harbors in cities such as Philadelphia and New York City allowed the Middle Colonies to grow into major commercial hubs for all of the British American colonies
The New England Colonies
were marked by poor, thin, rocky soils and a relatively short growing season that made farming difficult. However, plentiful forests and proximity of the sea led New Englanders to develop a thriving ship-building industry. New Englanders became the merchants of the colonies and New England-based ships were the carriers of colonial goods in the Trans-Atlantic trade.
Development of the Mid-Atlantic Colonies—Pennsylvania
In 1681, King Charles II granted William Penn a land charter as re-payment of a loan made by Penn’s father to the king. The land charter subsequently became known as Pennsylvania. Penn created a colony that became a place of refuge for English Quakers who faced persecution for their beliefs in Great Britain and in the English colonies of North America. Penn’s philosophy of religious tolerance attracted other immigrants such as Germans and Scots-Irish.
This theory held that the earth had a limited supply of wealth in the form of natural resources, especially gold and silver, so the best way to become a stronger nation was to acquire the most wealth.
The Great Awakening***
was a religious revival influenced by the revivals that were sweeping through England, Scotland, and Germany in the 1730’s. It spread from Europe to the colonies in the following decade and continued until the eve of the American Revolution. The revival placed an emphasis on individual religious experience rather than religious experience through church doctrine.
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
was the last of a series of wars fought between Great Britain and her allies and France and her allies over control of colonial and European trade. The war began in North America as a result of on-going British-American expansion into the Ohio River Valley. The French persuaded their Indian allies to join them in preventing further settlement in the region west of the Appalachian Mountains. Great Britain eventually won the war. The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the French and Indian War and forced France to turn over control of Canada to Great Britain. France also surrendered its claim to all land east of the Mississippi River, with the exception of the city of New Orleans.
a series of laws designed to punish the American colonies, and especially Massachusetts, for attack on the British ships.Instead of breaking Massachusetts, the laws effectively organized the other colonies against the British government.
published anonymously by Thomas Paine in January 1776. Paine wrote a clearly worded rationale for independence that the common man could understand. Paine’s argument helped to persuade many who were undecided to support the cause of independence.
Franco-American Treaty of 1778
Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin were instrumental in negotiating the Treaty. The alliance essentially turned the tide of the war against Great Britain. French naval attacks in the Caribbean and against British holdings in India forced the Royal Navy to weaken its blockade along the eastern seaboard of the United States.
1783 Treaty of Paris
ended the American Revolutionary War. The United States won its independence from Great Britain and gained control of land stretching to the Mississippi River. Britain ceded Florida to Spain and certain African and Caribbean colonies to France.
Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation were written during the American Revolution. They reflected Americans’ fear of a powerful national government. As a result, the Articles created a government that had no executive branch and that lacked the power to tax, regulate commerce, or establish one national currency. The Articles gave individual states more power than the national government resulting conflicts among the states that came to threaten the existence of the nation. However, the weakness of the articles did lead many Americans to support the formation of a constitutional convention
Daniel Shays led more than a thousand farmers to seize a federal arsenal in Massachusetts but were turned back by the Massachusetts Militia. This was just one of many protests that debt-ridden farmers made during this period.
believed the government created by the Constitution would be too powerful and would eliminate the power of the states. They also argued that the Constitution did not describe the rights guaranteed to the states and to each citizen.
The Federalist Papers
a series of articles written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay that supported ratification of the Constitution and explained the intent behind its major provisions
supporters of the Constitution
The Great Compromise
helped “save” the Constitution by settling the dispute between states with large populations and states with small populations. The compromise called for the creation of a legislature with two chambers: a House of Representatives, with representation based on population, and a Senate, with equal representation for all states.
resulted in Western Pennsylvania when armed violence broke out as farmers frightened and attacked federal tax collectors. George Washington led a large militia force into the western counties and put down the rebellion. Washington’s response set a precedent for Constitutional authority to enforce the law.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These laws increased citizenship requirements so that Jefferson could not receive support from the immigrant community and attempted to stop any criticism by limiting speech and press rights. In reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Jefferson and Madison argued in the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions that states could refuse to enforce federal laws they opposed. This was the beginning of the states’ rights concept.
The law provided for the method by which new territories would be admitted to the United States. The ordinance banned slavery in the Northwest Territory effectively making the Ohio River the boundary between free and slave regions. This law demonstrated to Americans that their national government intended to encourage westward expansion. The laws of the nation would follow its citizens across the continent. New states would be admitted to the nation as equal members of the Union.
President Jefferson sent Robert Livingston and James Monroe to France to inquire about the purchase of New Orleans for the United States in order to secure a permanent port on the Mississippi River. Napoleon, seeing an opportunity to finance his wars in Europe and a way to keep the British from expanding in North America, agreed to sell the United States the entire region for $15 million. The purchase doubled the size of the United States. Lands critical for future expansion were secured and the United States had a secure port at New Orleans to export American goods abroad. Jefferson entered the presidency as a strict anti federalist, but his purchase of Louisiana violated his beliefs bc the constitution made no provision of the president to make such a purchase
War of 1812: Causes
-Americans objected to restrictions Britain was enforcing to prevent neutral American merchants from trading with the French.
-Americans were outraged by the British policy of impressment. Under this policy, thousands of American sailors were forced against their will to serve in the British navy after their merchant ships were captured at sea
-the British had refused to turn over fortifications along the Great Lakes as required by the Treaty of Paris of 1783. Americans suspected the British were using these British-held sites to give support to Native Americans as they continued to fight to keep Americans from settling lands west of the Appalachian Mountains
-Americans wished to drive the British out of North America altogether by conquering Canada while the British army was fighting the French in Europe
When a group of European countries planned to help one another recapture American colonies that had gained independence, Monroe announced that the United States would prevent European nations from interfering with independent American countries. Further, Monroe said the United States would remain neutral in wars between European nations and would not interfere with their American colonies.
the Industrial Revolution
the success of the Industrial Revolution was aided by four factors:
-transportation was expanded
-a power source was effectively harnessed (water-power and, shortly thereafter, steam power)
-improvements were made to industrial processes such as improving the refining process and accelerating production.
-the government helped protect fledgling American manufacturers by passing protective tariffs.
Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793. It is a machine that rapidly removes cotton plant seeds from the valuable cotton fiber which greatly decreased the cost and labor of picking cotton and substantially increased the profit margin. He also invented interchangeable parts. Whitney introduced the practice of manufacturing identical parts so only the broken part would need to be replaced to repair the whole machine
Americans believed such rapid expansion must have been a result of divine favor. a phrase coined to describe the belief that America was to expand and settle the entire continent of North America.
Common School Movement
Began by Horace Mann of Massachusetts, along with Henry Barnard of Connecticut. The Movement hoped to create good citizens, unite society and prevent crime and poverty. Mann advocated a free public education, financed by local funds, and administered by a local school board and superintendent. This model is essentially the one used in America today
number of prominent women activists were denied access to the London World Anti-Slavery Convention because they were women. These women, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and the Grimke Sisters (Angelina and Sarah) became outspoken advocates for women’s equality. To push toward their ideas, Stanton and Mott organized a meeting in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19-20, 1848. Stanton drafted the Declaration of Sentiments, modeling her work after the Declaration of Independence. Stanton’s Declaration called for an end to the unequal treatment of women. The Seneca Falls Conference marked the beginning of the Women’s Rights Movement.
“Era of Good Feelings”
-national finances were strengthened through the creation of a new national bank that served as a depository for federal funds and stable source of currency.
-A new tariff was passed in order to protect American industry from what was seen as unfair trade practices by British manufacturers
-The Supreme Court strengthened the federal government’s power through a series of critical court decisions that backed the power of the new national bank to regulate finances
-The expansion of the nation westward was eased through new federal land purchasing policies that made purchasing a homestead easier
It sought a stronger presidency and executive branch, and a weaker Congress. it also sought to broaden public participation in government, so it expanded voting rights to Include all adult white males, not just landowners. Another principle of Jacksonian democracy was that politicians should be allowed to appoint their followers to government jobs as a way of limiting the power of elite groups. Jacksonians also favored Manifest Destiny and greater westward expansion of the United States.
most notable abolitionists
William Lloyd Garrison: the leading voice for temperance, women’s equality and immediate emancipation. founder and editor of The Liberator, the leading abolitionist newspaper.
Frederick Douglass:Douglass worked for Garrison and traveled widely, giving eloquent speeches on behalf of equality for African Americans, women, Native Americans, and immigrants. He later published his own antislavery newspaper, The North Star. Douglass was the most influential African-American in the abolitionist movement.
The Grimke sisters, Sarah and Angelina, were southern women who lectured publicly throughout the northern states about the evils of slavery they had seen growing up on a plantation. They were considered very radical bc they also advocated the equality for blacks and women
Missouri Compromise of 1820
When Missouri petitioned in early 1820 for admission, northern Senators were reluctant to agree because the balance of power would favor slave states. However, Maine had petitioned the Senate for admission also. Senators linked the admission of Maine and Missouri together and added a last minute provision restricting slavery to a line south of latitude 36°, 30” (Missouri’s southern border).
Mexican-American War Causes
U.S. annexation of Texas and the claim that the border was at Rio Grand, 150 miles south of where the Mexicans believed it to be. President Polk sent U.S. troops to Rio Grande to provoke Mexican troops.
- Treaty—Guadalupe-Hidalgo: would end the conflict and grant the U.S.:
- - Rio Grande would be the recognized border between the United States and Mexico
-Mexico gave up the territories of California and New Mexico. The area became known as the Mexican Cession
-The United States paid $15 million to the Mexican government and assumed the claims of American citizens against the Mexican government
a amendment to the legislation to ban slavery in the land obtained from mexico following the Mexican american war. It would pass in house on both accounts but not in senate furthering tensions between the north and south
Compromise of 1850
-The state of New Mexico would be established by carving its borders from the state of Texas.New Mexico voters would determine whether the state would permit or prohibit the practice of slavery.
-California would be admitted to the Union as a free state.
-All citizens would be required to apprehend runaway slaves and return them to their owners. Those who failed to do so would be fined or imprisoned.
-The slave trade would be abolished in the District of Columbia, but the practice of slavery would be allowed to continue there.
the Kansas-Nebraska Act virtually repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850. Settlers in all new territories would have the right to decide for themselves whether their new home would be a free or a slave state.
Dred Scott Decision
The Court said Congress could not prohibit slavery in federal territories.Thus, the Court found that popular sovereignty and the Missouri Compromise of 1820 were unconstitutional. The Dred Scott decision gave slavery the protection of the U.S. Constitution. In essence, nothing short of a constitutional amendment could end slavery
Key Battles of the Civil War
Fort Sumter: Fort Sumter was one of the last forts under federal control located in seceding states. Confederate forces staged a 24-hour bombardment against it and, by attacking federal property, had committed an act of open rebellion
Antietam––September 1862––Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee marched his forces to Antietam Creek, Maryland, where he fought the war’s first major battle on northern soil. It was the deadliest one-day battle in American history, with over 26,000 casualties, but neither side won a victor. The significance of the Battle of Antietam was that Lee’s failure to win and the Union’s claim of victory encouraged Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Gettysburg––July 1863––Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee hoped that an invasion of Union territory would significantly weaken Northern support for the war effort. Lee’s army was met by Union troops at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. In the course of a three-day battle, as many as 51,000 were killed. It was the deadliest battle of the American Civil War. Gettysburg marked the beginning of the end for the Confederate forces in the east
Vicksburg––May–July 1863––Union Major Gen. Ulysses S. Grant laid siege to Vicksburg, Mississippi, because the army that controlled its high ground over a bend in the Mississippi River would control traffic on the whole river. After a seven-week siege Grant, aided by naval actions along the mouth of the Mississippi River, achieved one of the Union’s major strategic goals: by gaining control of the Mississippi River. Confederate troops and supplies in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas were cut off from the Confederacy. This Union victory, coupled with the Union victory at Gettysburg, was the turning point of the war
Atlanta––July–September 1864––Union Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman besieged Atlanta, Georgia, for six weeks before capturing this vitally important center of Confederate manufacturing and railway traffic. Sherman’s goal was to disrupt the Confederacy’s capacity to resupply its troops throughout the South. Union troops burned Atlanta to the ground and then marched across Georgia to the Atlantic Ocean, destroying the railways, roads, and bridges along the path, as well as the crops and livestock his troops did not harvest and butcher to feed themselves. Now the South knew it would lose the war, and the North knew it would win.
The causes of the Great Depression
-Consumer overspending, which would lead to over production once the stock market fell and consumers stopped buying
-“Get rich quick” attitudes: constant buying and selling of stock until speculators began selling and trying to capitalize on profits leading to the stock market crash
-Disparity in wealth
-Banking Panic: As unemployment increased, depositors began to require more and more of their savings. Lacking sufficient reserves, banks were forced to call in loans which in turn touched off a wave of bankruptcies
Roosevelt’s first hundred days in office
a declaration of war on the Great Depression. Roosevelt immediately signed an executive order closing all the nation’s banks until their solvency could be determined. He then called Congress into special session and sent Congress a series of bills designed to address the nation’s problems. Collectively, these bills would become known as the New Deal
The act protected the right of workers to organize and forbade companies from engaging in retaliation. The act also created an enforcement mechanism and used the federal government as an overseer to insure fair elections.
was an expression of the U.S. belief that communism would infiltrate those areas of Europe that were left weakened by the effects of World War II. As a part of the Truman Doctrine, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was created to provide for the mutual defense of Western Europe amid fears of the newly atomic armed USSR
The Marshall Plan
To combat the negative economic impacts of the World War II, George C. Marshall, who was the Secretary of State during the Truman Administration, proposed a European Recovery Program. The plan had two major aims: to prevent the spread of communism in Western Europe and to stabilize the international political order in a way favorable to the development of political democracy and free-market economies
After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to administer the formerly Japanese ruled Korean peninsula under a joint-trusteeship. However, the leaders of the two dominant Korean political parties, the right-wing (U.S.-backed) party led by Syngman Rhee and the left-wing (Soviet-backed) party led by Kim Il-sung, objected to the trusteeship and quickly organized their own countries—each bent on re-unifying Korean under the image of either democracy or communism. When the U.S. publicly announced that South Korea was not in the defensive sphere of the United States, Kim Il-sung (with Soviet blessings) launched a war to re-unify South and North Korea in June of 1950. The fear of total take-over of Asia seemed to be confirmed when communist North Korea invaded democratic South Korea. Extending the policy of containment to Korea, President Truman, along with the United Nations, launched a defense of South Korea. After three years of fighting, the U.S. and U.N. forces stabilized the Korean frontier along the 38th Parallel (the original border). No peace treaty has been signed and hostilities between the two states continue.
The Cuban Revolution
In 1952, General Fulgencio Batista overthrew the elected government of Cuba and established a military dictatorship. He allied himself with the leading multi-national businesses and the mafia controlled hotels, casinos, and brothels. In 1953, the 26th of July Movement led by Fidel and Raul Castro attempted to overthrow the Batista government. The coup attempt failed.. In 1955, the Castro brothers were exiled from Cuba. In 1956, the brothers returned with a group of guerilla soldiers. After a couple of years of intense fighting, they were able to overthrow the Batista government in 1958. Upon gaining control of Cuba, Fidel Castro named himself president for life. Castro’s plans to nationalize foreign businesses and land reform policies alienated American businessmen and Cuba’s wealthy. The United States responded by applying economic sanctions against Cuba.
Impact of Baby Boomers
-The stimulus of money into housing caused a housing boom characterized by the development of the first suburban housing developments, such as Levittown, New York
-consumer spending expanded as new furniture, appliances, and other household goods were needed.
-the demand for government built infra-structure increased, i.e. Interstate Highway Act passed in 1956
President Lyndon Johnson program as a way of attacking the endemic problem of poverty in the United States. He believed that the post-war prosperity of the United States could be harnessed to solve key quality of life issues. Johnson’s programs involved the:
- -War on Poverty
- -The environment
- -National Endowment for the Arts and the Humanities
- -Job Corps
- -Head star