Education Psychology.txt

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Education Psychology.txt
2013-03-19 10:28:16
educational psychology

ed psych vocab
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  1. motivation
    inner state that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior
  2. affect
    feelings, emotions, and moods that a learner brings to bear on a task
  3. self-determination theory
    3 basic needs-effective w/ environment (competence), control lives (autonomy), relationships (relatedness) 3 needs must be met to learn
  4. self-worth theory
    protecting own sense of competence (self-worth) high priority.  if afraid to fail they may self-handicap to decrease possibility of success in order to justify failure to themselves and others and maintain self-worth
  5. expectancy value theory
    motivation is 2 variables - must believe they can succeed, (expectancy) must believe in direct or indirect benefits to success (value)
  6. social cognitive theory
    new cognitive version of social learning theory. self-efficacy-belief in own abilities or goal reaching (comes from past academic success) social can help over short run
  7. goal theory
    goals-orientated. include academic, financial, social, career, physical, psychological etc. (mastery goals-reflect desire to gain new knowledge) (performance goals-competent in eyes of others)
  8. attribution theory
    learner belief about why something happens to them. good/bad academics. beliefs known as attributions influence optimism - more eager to work if they feel they are in control of their own success - they contribute
  9. time on task
    amount of time that students are actively engaged in a learning activity
  10. extrinsic motivation
    motivation resulting from factors external to the individual and unrelated to the task being performed
  11. intrinsic motivation
    motivation resulting from personal characteristics or inherent in the task being performed
  12. flow
    intense form of intrinsic motivation, involving complete absorption in and concentration on a challenging activity
  13. situated motivation
    motivation that emerges at least partly from conditions in a learner's immediate environment
  14. self-worth
    beliefs about one's own general ability to deal effectively with the enviornment
  15. self-handicapping
    undermining one's own success as a way of protecting self-worth during difficult tasks
  16. self-determination
    sense that one has some autonomy and control regarding the future course of one's life
  17. relatedness
    feeling that one is socially connected to others and has others' love and respect
  18. hot cognition
    learning or cognitive processing that is emotionally charged (best learned recall memory)
  19. cognitive dissonance
    feeling of mental discomfort caused by new information that conflicts with current knowledge or beliefs
  20. anxiety
    feeling of uneasiness and apprehension concerning a situation with an uncertain outcome
  21. facilitating anxiety
    level of anxiety (usually relatively low) that enhances performance
  22. debilitating anxiety
    anxiety of sufficient intensity that it interferes with performance
  23. threat
    situation in which a learner believes there is little or no chance of success
  24. challenge
    situation in which a learner believes that success is possible with sufficient effort
  25. interest
    feeling that a topic is intriguing or enticing
  26. situational interest
    interest evoked temporarily by something in the environment
  27. personal interest
    long-term, relatively stable interest in a particular topic or activity
  28. value
    belief that an activity has direct or indirect benefits
  29. internalized motivation
    adoption of others' priorities and values as one's own
  30. self-efficacy
    belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or reaching certain goals
  31. collective self-efficacy
    shared belief of members of a group that they can be successful when they work together on a task
  32. mastery goal
    desire to acquire additional knowledge or master new skills
  33. performance goal
    desire to demonstrate high ability and make a good impression
  34. performance-approach goal
    desire to look good and receive favorable judgements from others
  35. performance-avoidance goal
    desire not to look bad or receive unfavorable judgements from others
  36. social goal
    desire related to establishing or maintaining relationships with other people
  37. core goal
    long-term goal that drives much of what a learner does
  38. attribution
    personally constructed causal explanation for a success or failure
  39. entity view of intelligence
    belief that intelligence is a "thing" that is relatively permanent and unchangeable
  40. incremental view of intelligence
    belief that intelligence can improve with effort and practice
  41. mastery orientation
    general fairly pervasive belief that one is capable of accomplishing challenging tasks
  42. learned helplessness
    general, fairly pervasive belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment
  43. stereotype threat
    awareness of a negative stereotype about one's own group and accompanying uneasiness that low performance will confirm the stereotype; leads (often unintentionally) to a reduction in performance
  44. resilient self-efficacy
    belief that one can perform a task successfully even after experiencing setbacks
  45. proximal goal
    concrete goal that can be accomplished within a short time period; may be a stepping stone toward a longer term goal
  46. sense of self
    perceptions, beliefs, judgements, and feelings about oneself as a person
  47. personality
    characteristic ways in which an individual behaves, thinks, and feels
  48. authoritative parenting
    parenting style characterized by emotional warmth, high standards for behavior, explanation, and consistent enforcement of rules, and inclusion of children in decision making
  49. parenting type-authoritative
    children-happy, self-confident, curious, likable, effective social skills, independent and self-reliant, respectful of others, successful in school
    loving, supportive home; high expectations and standards for behavior; enforce household rules consistently; explain why some behaviors are acceptable and others are not; include children in family decision
  50. parenting type-authoritarian
    children unhappy,anxious, low self-confidence, lacking initiative, dependent on others, lacking in social skills and prosocial behavior, coercive in dealing with others, defiant
    less emotional warmth, high expectations and standards for behavior, establish rules without regard for children needs, expect rules obeyed without question, allow little give and take in discussions
  51. parenting type-permissive
    children -selfish, unmotivated, dependent on others, demanding of attention, disobedient, impulsive
    provide loving supportive home environment, few expectations or standards for behavior, rare to punish, allow children many of own decisions (eating, bedtime, etc)
  52. parenting type-uninvolved
    children-disobedient, demanding, low in self-control, low in tolerance for frustration, lacking long-term goals
    little emotional support; hold few expectations or standards for children; little interest in children's lives; parents seem overwhelmed by own problems
  53. identity
    self-constructed definition of who one thinks one is and what things are important in life
  54. personal fable
    belief that one is completely unlike anyone else and so cannot be understood by others
  55. imaginary audience
    belief that one is the center of attention in any social situation
  56. gender schema
    self-constructed, organized body of beliefs about the traits and behaviors of males or females
  57. self-socialization
    tendency to integrate personal observations and others' input into self-constructed standards for behavior and to choose actions consistent with those standards
  58. peer pressure
    phenomenon whereby age-mates strongly encourage some behaviors and discourage others
  59. clique
    moderately stable friendship group of perhaps three to ten members
  60. crowd
    large, loose-knit social group that shares common interests and attitudes
  61. subculture
    group that resists the ways of the dominant culture and adopts its own norms for behavior
  62. gang
    cohesive social group characterized by initiation rites, distinctive colors and symbols, territorial orientation, and feuds with rival groups
  63. popular student
    student whom many peers like and perceive to be kind and trustworthy
  64. rejected student
    student whom many peers identify as being an undesirable social partner
  65. controversial student
    student whom some peers strongly like and other peers strongly dislike
  66. neglected student
    student about whom most peers have no strong feelings, either positive or negative
  67. social cognition
    process of thinking about how other people are likely to think, act, and react
  68. perspective taking
    ability to look at a situation from someone's else viewpoint
  69. theory of mind
    understanding of one's own and other people's mental and psychological states (thoughts, feelings, etc)
  70. recursive thinking
    thinking about what other people may be thinking about oneself, possibly through multiple iterations
  71. social information processing
    mental processes involved in understanding and responding to social events
  72. aggressive behavior
    action intentionally taken to harm another person either physically or psychologically
  73. physical behavior
    action that can potentially cause bodily injury
  74. relational aggression
    action that can adversely affect interpersonal relationships
  75. proactive aggression
    deliberate aggression against another as a means of obtaining a desired goal
  76. reactive aggression
    aggressive response to frustration or provocation
  77. hostile attributional bias
    tendency to interpret others' behavior as reflecting hostile or aggressive intentions
  78. morality
    one's general standards about right and wrong behavior
  79. moral transgression
    action that causes harm or infringes on the needs or rights of others
  80. conventional transgression
    action that violates a cultures general expectations regarding socially appropriate behavior
  81. ethnic identity
    awareness of one's membership in a particular ethnic or cultural group, and willingness to adopt behaviors characteristic to that group
  82. guilt
    feeling of discomfort when one knows one has caused someone else pain or distress
  83. shame
    feeling of embarrassment or humiliation after failing to meet standards for moral behavior that adults have set
  84. empathy
    experience of sharing the same feelings as someone in unfortunate circumstances
  85. distributive justice
    beliefs about what constitutes people's fair share of a commodity
  86. moral dilemma
    situation in which there is no clear-cut answer regarding the morally correct action
  87. preconventional morality
    lack of internalized standards about right and wrong, making decisions based solely on what is best for oneself
  88. conventional morality
    uncritical acceptance of society's conventions regarding right and wrong
  89. postconventional morality
    thinking in accordance with self-constructed, abstract principles regarding right and wrong
  90. sympathy
    feeling of sorrow or concern for another person's problems or distress
  91. induction
    explanation of why a certain behavior is unacceptable, often with a focus on the pain or distress that someone has caused another
  92. peer mediation
    approach to conflict resolution in which a student (mediator) asks peers in conflict to express their differing viewpoints and then work together to identify an appropriate response
  93. students at risk
    student who has a high probability of failing to acquire the minimum academic skills necessary for success in the adult world
  94. resilient student
    student who succeeds in school and in life despite exceptional hardships at home
  95. educational psychology
    academic discipline that studies and applies concepts and theories to psychology relevant to instructional practice
  96. descriptive study
    research study that enables researchers to draw conclusions about the current state of affairs but not about correlational or cause-effect relationships
  97. correlational study
    research study that explores possible relationships among variables
  98. experimental study (experiment)
    research study that involves the manipulation of one variable to determine its possible effect on another variable
  99. treatment group
    group of people in a research study who are given a particular experimental treatment (ie a particular method of instruction)
  100. control group
    group of people in a research study who are given either no treatment or treatment that is unlikely to have an effect on the dependent variable
  101. theory
    integrated set of concepts and principles developed to explain a particular phenomenon
  102. learning
    long-term change in mental representations and associations due to experience
  103. cognition
    various ways of thinking about information and events
  104. cognitive process
    particular way of mentally responding to or thinking about information or an event
  105. encoding
    changing the format of information being stored in memory in order to remember it more easily
  106. neuron
    cell in the brain or another part of the nervous system that transmits information to other cells
  107. neurotransmitter
    chemical substance with which one neuron sends a message to another
  108. synapse
    tiny space across which one neuron regularly communicates with another; reflects a well-established connection between the two neurons
  109. cortex
    upper and outer parts of the human brain, which are largely responsible for conscious and higher-level human thought processes
  110. memory
    ability to save something (mentally) that has been previously learned; also, the mental "location" where such information is saved
  111. storage
    process of "putting" new information into memory
  112. retrieval
    process of "finding" information previously stored in memory
  113. sensory register
    component of memory that holds incoming information in an unanalyzed form for a very brief time (perhaps 1-2 sec)
  114. attention
    focusing of mental processes on particular stimuli
  115. working memory
    component of memory that holds and actively thinks about and processes a limited amount of information
  116. rehearsal
    cognitive process in which information is repeated over and over as a possible way of learning and remembering it
  117. long-term memory
    component of memory that holds knowledge and skills for a relatively long time
  118. declarative knowledge
    knowledge related to "what is" - that is, the nature of how things are, or will be
  119. procedural knowledge
    knowledge concerning how to do something (eg a skill)
  120. concept
    mental grouping of objects or events that have something in common
  121. schema
    general understanding of what an object or event is typically like
  122. script
    schema that involves a predictable sequence of events related to a common activity
  123. theory
    integrated set of concepts and principles developed to explain a particular phenomenon
  124. rote learning
    learning information in a relatively uninterpreted form, without making sense of it or attaching much meaning to it
  125. meaningful learning
    cognitive process in which learners relate new information to things they already know
  126. elaboration
    cognitive process in which learners embellish on new information based on what they already know
  127. organization
    cognitive process in which learners find connections (eg by forming categories, identifying hierarchies, determining cause-effect relationships) among the various pieces of information they need to learn
  128. visual imagery
    process of forming mental pictures of objects or ideas
  129. automaticity
    ability to respond quickly and efficiently while mentally processing or physically performing a task
  130. learning strategy
    one or more cognitive processes used intentionally for a particular learning task
  131. knowledge base
    one's existing knowledge about specific topics and the world in general
  132. confirmation bias
    tendency to seek information that confirms rather than discredits current beliefs
  133. retrieval cue
    stimulus, that provides guidance about where to "look" for a piece of information in long-term memory
  134. reconstruction error
    construction of a logical but incorrect memory by using information retrieved from longer-term memory in combination with general knowledge and beliefs about the world
  135. retrieval failure
    inability to locate information that currently exists in long-term memory
  136. decay
    weakening over time of information stored in long-term memory, especially if the information is used infrequently
  137. prior knowledge activation
    process of reminding learners of things they have already learned relative to a new topic
  138. conceptual understanding
    knowledge about a topic acquired in an integrated and meaningful fashion
  139. wait time
    length of time a teacher pauses, after either asking a question or hearing a student's comment, before saying something
  140. mnemonic
    memeory aid or trick designed to helps students learn and remember a specific piece of information
  141. verbal mediator
    word or phrase that forms a logical connection or "bridge" between two pieces of information
  142. keyword method
    mnemonic technique in which an association is made between two ideas by forming a visual image of one or more concrete objects (keywords) that either sound similar, or symbolically represent, those ideas
  143. superimposed meaningful structure
    familiar shape, word, sentence, poem, or story imposed on information in order to facilitate recall
  144. conceptual change
    revision of one's understanding of a topic in response to new information
  145. learning disability
    deficiency in one or more specific cognitive processes despite relatively normal cognitive functioning in other areas
  146. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    disorder marked by inattention, inability to inhibit inappropriate thoughts and behaviors, or both
  147. response
    specific behavior that an individual exhibits
  148. stimulus (pl. stimuli)
    specific object or event that influences an individuals learning or behavior
  149. functional analysis
    examination of inappropriate behavior and its antecedents and consequences to determine purpose (functions) that the behavior might serve for the learner
  150. cueing
    use of simple signals to indicate that a certain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop
  151. operant conditioning
    form of learning in which a response increases in frequency as a result of its being followed by reinforcement
  152. reinforcer
    consequences of a response that leads to increased frequency of the response
  153. reinforcement
    act of following a response with a reinforcer
  154. primary reinforcer
    consequence that satisfies a biological built-in need
  155. secondary reinforcer
    consequence that becomes reinforcing over time through its association with another reinforcer
  156. positive reinforcement
    phenomenon in which a response increases as a result of the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus
  157. extrinsic reinforcer
    reinforcer that comes from the outside environment rather than from within the learner
  158. intrinsic reinforcer
    reinforcer provided by oneself or inherent in a task being performed
  159. delay of gratification
    ability to forego small, immediate reinforcers to obtain larger ones later on
  160. negative reinforcement
    phenomenon in which a response increases as a result of the removal (rather than presentation) of a stimulus
  161. punishment
    consequences that decreases the frequency of the response it follows
  162. presentation punishment
    punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus, presumably one a learner finds unpleasant
  163. removal punishment
    punishment involving removal of an existing stimulus, presumably one a learner finds desirable and doesn't want to lose
  164. model
    person who demonstrates a behavior for someone else
  165. modeling
    demonstrating a behavior for another; also, observing and imitating another's behavior
  166. live model
    individual whose behavior is observed "in the flesh"
  167. symbolic model
    real or fictional character portrayed in the media that influences an observer's behavior
  168. prosocial behavior
    behavior directed toward promoting the well-being of another
  169. vicarious reinforcement
    phenomenon in which a response increases in frequency when another (observed) person is reinforced for that response
  170. vicarious punishment
    phenomenon in which a response decreases in frequency when another (observed) person is punished for that response
  171. incentive
    hope-for, but not guaranteed, future consequence of behavior
  172. situated learning and cognition
    knowledge, behaviors, and thinking skills acquired and used primarily within certain contexts with limited if any transfer to other contexts
  173. mediated learning experience
    social interaction in which an adult helps a child interpret a phenomenon or event in particular (usually culturally appropriate) ways
  174. cognitive tool
    concept, symbol, strategy, procedure, or other culturally constructed mechanism that helps people think about and respond to situations more effectively
  175. distributed cognition
    process in which two or more learners each contribute knowledge and ideas as they work collaboratively on an issue or problem
  176. culture
    behaviors and belief systems of a long-standing social group
  177. ethnic group
    people who have common historical roots, values, beliefs, and behaviors and who share a sense of interdependence
  178. society
    large, enduring social group that is socially and economically organized and has collective institutions and activities
  179. socialization
    process of molding a child's behavior and beliefs to be appropriate for the cultural group
  180. Standard English
    form of English generally considered acceptable at school, as reflected in textbooks and grammar instruction
  181. dialect
    form of a language that has certain unique pronunciations and grammatical structures and is characteristic of a particular region or ethnic group
  182. African American English
    Dialect of some black communities that includes some pronunciation, idioms, and grammatical constructions different from those of standard English
  183. personal space
    personally or culturally preferred distance between two people during social interaction
  184. culture shock
    sense of confusion when a student encounters a culture with behavioral expectations very different from those previously learned
  185. cultural mismatch
    situation in which a child's home culture and the school culture hold conflicting expectations for the child's behavior
  186. socioeconomic status (SES)
    one's general social and economic standing in society (encompasses family income, education level, and occupational status)
  187. reciprocal causation
    interdependence of environment, behavior, and personal variables as these three factors influence learning and development
  188. autism
    disability characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, repetitive behaviors, restricted interests, and a strong need for a predictable environment
  189. niche-picking
    tendency for a person to seek out environmental conditions that are a good match with existing characteristics and behaviors
  190. extinction
    gradual disappearance of an acquired response; in the case of a response acquired through operant conditioning, it results from repeated lack of reinforcement for the response
  191. token economy
    technique in which desired behaviors are reinforced by tokens that the learner can use to "purchase" a variety of other, backup reinforcers
  192. contingency
    situation in which one event (eg reinforcement) happens only after another event (eg a specific response) has already occurred (one event is contingent on the other's occurrence)
  193. contingency contract
    formal agreement between teacher and student that identifies behaviors the student will exhibit and the reinforcers that will follow
  194. incompatible behaviors
    two or more behaviors that cannot be performed simultaneously
  195. shaping
    process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations to a desired behavior
  196. community of learners
    class in which teacher and students actively and collaboratively work to help one another learn.
  197. multicultural eduction
    instruction that integrates perspectives and experiences of numerous cultural groups throughout the curriculum
  198. higher-level cognitive process
    cognitive process that involves going well beyond information specifically learned (eg by analyzing, applying, or evaluating it)
  199. metacognition
    knowledge and beliefs about one's own cognitive processes, as well as conscious attempts to engage in behaviors and thought processes that increase learning and memory
  200. overt strategy
    learning strategy that is at least partially evident in the learner's behavior (eg taking notes during a lecture)
  201. concept map
    diagram of concepts and their interrelationships used to enhance learning and memory of a topic
  202. covert strategy
    learning strategy that is strictly mental (rather than behavioral) in nature and so cannot be observed by others
  203. comprehension monitoring
    process of checking oneself to be sure one understands and remembers newly acquired information
  204. illusion of knowing
    thinking that one knows something that one actually does not know
  205. epistemological belief
    belief about the nature of knowledge or knowledge acquisition
  206. self-regulation
    process of taking control of one's own learning and behavior
  207. self-instructions
    instructions that one gives oneself while performing a complex behavior
  208. self-monitoring
    observing and recording one's own behavior to check progress toward a goal
  209. self-evaluation
    judgement of one's own performance or behavior
  210. self-imposed contingency
    self-reinforcement or self-punishment that follows a particular behavior
  211. co-regulated learning
    process through which an adult and child share responsibility for directing various aspects of the child's learning
  212. transfer
    phenomenon in which something a person has learned at one affects how the person learns or performs in a later situation
  213. positive transfer
    phenomenon in which something learned at one time facilitates learning or performance at a later time
  214. negative transfer
    phenomenon in which something learned at one time interferes with learning or performance at a later time
  215. specific transfer
    instance of transfer in which the original learning task and the transfer task overlap in content
  216. general transfer
    instance of transfer in which the original learning task and the transfer task are different in content
  217. problem solving
    using existing knowledge or skills to address an unanswered question or troubling situation
  218. creativity
    new and original behavior that yields an appropriate and productive result
  219. convergent thinking
    process of pulling several pieces of information together to draw a conclusion or solve a problem
  220. divergent thinking
    process of mentally proceeding in a variety of directions from a single idea
  221. problem solving
    using existing knowledge or skills to address an unanswered question or troubling situation
  222. creativity
    new and original behavior that yields an appropriate and productive result
  223. convergent thinking
    process of pulling several pieces of information together to draw a conclusion or solve a problem
  224. divergent thinking
    process of mentally proceeding in a variety of directions from a single idea
  225. mental set
    inclination to encode a problem or situation in a way that excludes potential solutions
  226. algorithm
    prescribed sequence of steps that guarantees a correct problem solution
  227. heuristic
    general strategy that facilitates problem solving or creativity but does not always yield a successful outcome
  228. critical thinking
    process of evaluating the accuracy and worth of information and lines of reasoning
  229. disposition
    general inclination to approach and think about learning and problem-solving tasks in a particular way
  230. authentic activity
    classroom activity similar to one students apt to encounter in the outside world
  231. problem based learning
    approach to instruction in which students acquire new knowledge and skills while working on a complex problem similar to those in the outside world
  232. developmental milestone
    appearance of a new, developmentally more advanced behavior
  233. universal (in development)
    similar pattern in how children change and progress over time regardless of their specific environment
  234. stage theory
    theory that depicts development as a series of relatively discrete periods (stages)
  235. maturation
    unfolding of genetically controlled changes as a child develops
  236. temperament
    genetic predisposition to respond in particular ways to one's physical and social enviornment
  237. sensitive period
    genetically determined age range during which aspect of a child's development is especially susceptible to environmental conditions
  238. synaptogenesis
    universal process in early brain development in which many new synapses form spontaneously
  239. synaptic pruning
    universal process in brain development in which many previously formed synapses wither away
  240. myelination
    growth of a fatty coating (myelin) around neurons, enabling faster transmission of messages
  241. plasticity
    capacity for the brain to learn and adapt to new circumstances
  242. assimilation
    dealing with a new event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme
  243. accommodation
    dealing with a new object or event by either modifying an existing scheme or forming a new one
  244. internalization
    process through which a learner gradually incorporates socially based activities into his or her internal cognitive processes
  245. self-talk
    process of talking to oneself as a way of guiding oneself through a task
  246. inner speech
    process of "talking" to one-self mentally (usually to guide oneself through a task) rather than aloud
  247. equilibrium
    state of being able to explain new events with existing schemes
  248. disequilibrium
    inability to explain new events with existing schemes; tends to be accompanied by a sense of discomfort
  249. equilibration
    movement from equilibrium to disequilibrium and back to equilibrium, a process that promotes development of more complex thought and understandings
  250. zone of proximal development (ZPD)
    range of tasks that a child can perform with the help and guidance of others but cannot yet perform independently
  251. preoperational stage
    Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, in which children can think about objects beyond their immediate view but do not yet reason in logical, adultlike ways
  252. conservation
    realization that if nothing is added or taken away, amount stays the same regardless of alterations in shape or arrangement
  253. concrete operations stage
    Piaget's third stage of cognitive development, in which adultlike logic appears but is limitd to concrete reality
  254. formal operations stage
    Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development, in which logical reasoning processes are applied to abstract ideas as well as to concrete objects and more sophisticated scientific and mathematical reasoning processes emerge
  255. expertise
    extensive and well-integrated knowledge of a topic that comes from many years of study and practice
  256. intelligence
    ability to modify and adjust behaviors to accomplish new tasks successfully; involves many different mental processes and many vary in nature depending on one's culture
  257. intelligence test
    general measure of current cognitive functioning, used primarily to predict academic achievement over the short run
  258. IQ score
    score on an intelligence test; determined by comparing a person's performance with that of others in the same age group
  259. g
    general factor
    Spearman's g
    Theoretical general factor in intelligence that influences one's ability to learn in a wide variety of contexts
  260. distributed intelligence
    idea that people act more "intelligently" when they have physical, symbolic, or social assistance
  261. clinical method
    procedure in which an adult probes a child's reasoning about a task of problem, tailoring follow-up questions to the child's earlier responses
  262. giftedness
    unusually high ability in one or more areas, to the point where students require special educational services to help them meet full potential
  263. mental retardation
    disability characterized by significantly below-average general intelligence and deficits in practical and social skills
  264. discovery learning
    approach to instruction in which students develop an understanding of a topic through firsthand interaction with the environment
  265. reciprocal teaching
    approach to teaching reading and listening comprehension in which students take turns asking teacherlike question of classmates
  266. scaffolding
    support mechanism that helps a learner successfully perform a task within his or her zone of proximal development
  267. guided participation
    a child's performance, with guidance and support, of an activity in the adult world
  268. apprenticeship
    mentorship in which a learner works intensively with an experienced adults to learn how to perform complex new skills
  269. cognitive apprenticeship
    mentorship in which a teacher and a student work together on a challenging task and the teacher gives guidance about how to think about the task
    Naturalist Intelligence
    ability to recognize patterns in nature and differences among various life-forms and natural objects
    Intrapersonal Intelligence
    Awareness of one's own feelings motives and desires
    Interpersonal Intelligence
    ability to notice subtle aspects of other people's behavior
    Bodily-Kinethsetic Intelligence
    ability to use ones body skillfully
    Musical Intelligence
    ability to create, comprehend, and appreciate music
    Spatial Intelligence
    ability to notice details of what one sees and to imagine and manipulates visual objects in one's mind
    Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
    ability to reason logically, especially in mathematics and science
    Linguistic Intelligence
    ability to use language effectively