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Shaft of the bone
Extremities of the bone
- Region where the diaphysis & the epiphyses
What is the epiphyseal plate
- Layer of hyaline cartilage that allow the bone
- to grow lengthwise
Define articular cartilage
- Cartilage that covers the epiphyses; reduces
- friction at the joint
Connective tissue covering the diaphysis
What are the 2 layers of the periosteum
fibrous outer layer & osteogenic inner layer
What is hydroxyapatite? Is it part of the
Mineral salt (tricalcium phosphate) that makes up the bone; Yes
Name the 4 types of bone cells & list their function or characteristics
- Osteoprogenitor cells - develop into
- osteoblasts, mitotically active
- osteoblasts - secrete collagen, no mitotic
- mature bone cells, maintain daily metabolic activity
- modified monocytes that breakdown & reabsorb bone
What is an osteon?
Basic structural unit of bone = Haversian system
Concentric rings of hard, calcified matrix
Spaces that contain osteocytes.
Canals connecting lacunae with each other & the central canals; conduit system for nutrient & waste transport
What is the functions of Volkmann's Canals
- Canals connecting the vessels of the periosteum with the Haverian
- canals & the medullary cavity
Does spongy bone contain osteons?
What is the difference between intramembranous & endochondral ossification?
Intramembranous ossification is the formation of bone directly on or within fibrous CT; Endochondral ossification is the formation of bone from a cartilage model
Name of 4 zones of the epiphyseal plate
What is a fissure?
narrow,cleft-like opening between adjacent parts of the bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass
what is a fossa?
A depression in our on the bone
what is a condyle?
Large, rounded protuberance at the end of the bone; forms a joint
What is a facet?
Smooth, flat surface; Forms a joint
Name the bones of the cranium
Forontal, Pariental, Temporal, Occipital, Sphenoid, Ethmoid
Name of bones on the face.
Nasal, Maxillas, Zygomatic, Mandible, Lacrimal, Palatine, Inferior nasal concahe, Vomer
What is the Significance of the zygomatic processes of the temporal bone?
Possesses mandibular fossa & articular tubercle which articulates with the condylar process of the mandible to form the temporomandibular joint
What is the significance of the mastoid processes of the temporal bone?
Attachment point of neck muscles
What is the significance of the foramen magnum of the occipital bone?
allows the spinal cord & blood vessels to pass into & out of the brain
What is the significance of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
Cradles the pituitary gland
what is the significance of the occipital condyles of the occipital bone?
They articulate with the atlas
What is the significance of the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone?
Contains olfactory foramina which allow the olfactory nerves to enter the brain from the nasal cavity
What is the significance of the crista galli of the ethmoid bone?
Attachment points for the brain membranes (meninges)
What are alveolar processes? Where do you
Sockets for teeth; Maxillae & Mandible
Where would you find the mental foramen?
Does the hyoid articulate with other bones?
The vertebral column is divided into what sections or vertebrae types.
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx
What is the vertebral foramen?
Space formed by pedicles, lamina, & body of the vertebrae; contains the spinal cord
What is the intervertebral foramen?
- Formed by the superior & inferior vertebral notches of each pedicles; permits the passage of the spinal nerves into & out of the
- vertebral column
Which vertebrae interacts with the occipital condyles?
Which vertebrae possesses the dens?
What surfaces of the sacrum articulate with the ilium of the coxal
What portion of the sternum interacts with the clavicles?
Are ribs attached to the xiphoid process
What is the difference between true & false ribs?
- True ribs connected to the sternum via costal cartilage; false ribs are connected to the costal cartilage of the 7th rib via costal
- cartilage; floating ribs (false) have no attachment