Axial Skeleton

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Axial Skeleton
2013-03-19 23:27:59
anatomy lab

Axial Skeleton
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  1. Define diaphysis.
    Shaft of the bone
  2. Define epiphyses.
    Extremities of the bone
  3. Define metaphyses.
    • Region where the diaphysis & the epiphyses
    • meet
  4. What is the epiphyseal plate
    • Layer of hyaline cartilage that allow the bone
    • to grow lengthwise
  5. Define articular cartilage
    • Cartilage that covers the epiphyses; reduces
    • friction at the joint
  6. Define periosteum
    Connective tissue covering the diaphysis
  7. What are the 2 layers of the periosteum
    fibrous outer layer & osteogenic inner layer
  8. What is hydroxyapatite?  Is it part of the
    Mineral salt (tricalcium phosphate) that makes up the bone; Yes
  9. Name the 4 types of bone cells & list their function or characteristics
    • Osteoprogenitor cells - develop into
    • osteoblasts, mitotically active

    • osteoblasts - secrete collagen, no mitotic
    • ability

    osteocytes - mature bone cells, maintain daily metabolic activity

    osteoclasts - modified monocytes that breakdown & reabsorb bone
  10. What is an osteon?
    Basic structural unit of bone = Haversian system
  11. Define Lamellae.
    Concentric rings of hard, calcified matrix
  12. Define Lacunae
    Spaces that contain osteocytes.
  13. Define Canaliculi
    Canals connecting lacunae with each other & the central canals; conduit system for nutrient & waste transport
  14. What is the functions of Volkmann's Canals
    • Canals connecting the vessels of the periosteum with the Haverian
    • canals & the medullary cavity
  15. Does spongy bone contain osteons?

    Haversian Canals?
  16. What is the difference between intramembranous & endochondral ossification?
    Intramembranous ossification is the formation of bone directly on or within fibrous CT; Endochondral ossification is the formation of bone from a cartilage model
  17. Name of 4 zones of the epiphyseal plate
    • Resting
    • Proliferating
    • Hypertrophic
    • Calcified
  18. What is a fissure?
    narrow,cleft-like opening between adjacent parts of the bone through which blood vessels or nerves pass
  19. what is a fossa?
    A depression in our on the bone
  20. what is a condyle?
    Large, rounded protuberance at the end of the bone; forms a joint
  21. What is a facet?
    Smooth, flat surface; Forms a joint
  22. Name the bones of the cranium 
    Forontal, Pariental, Temporal, Occipital, Sphenoid, Ethmoid
  23. Name of bones on the face.
    Nasal, Maxillas, Zygomatic, Mandible, Lacrimal, Palatine, Inferior nasal concahe, Vomer
  24. What is the Significance of the zygomatic processes of the temporal bone? 
    Possesses mandibular fossa & articular tubercle which articulates with the condylar process of the mandible to form the temporomandibular joint
  25. What is the significance of the mastoid processes of the temporal bone?
    Attachment point of neck muscles 
  26. What is the significance of the foramen magnum of the occipital bone?
    allows the spinal cord & blood vessels to pass into & out of the brain
  27. What is the significance of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
    Cradles the pituitary gland
  28. what is the significance of the occipital condyles of the occipital bone?
    They articulate with the atlas
  29. What is the significance of the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone?
    Contains olfactory foramina which allow the olfactory nerves to enter the brain from the nasal cavity
  30. What is the significance of the crista galli of the ethmoid bone?
    Attachment points for the brain membranes (meninges)
  31. What are alveolar processes?  Where do you
    find them?
    Sockets for teeth; Maxillae & Mandible
  32. Where would you find the mental foramen?
  33. Does the hyoid articulate with other bones?
  34. The vertebral column is divided into what sections or vertebrae types.
    Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx
  35. What is the vertebral foramen?
    Space formed by pedicles, lamina, & body of the vertebrae; contains the spinal cord
  36. What is the intervertebral foramen?
    • Formed by the superior & inferior vertebral notches of each pedicles; permits the passage of the spinal nerves into & out of the
    • vertebral column
  37. Which vertebrae interacts with the occipital condyles?
  38. Which vertebrae possesses the dens? 
  39. What surfaces of the sacrum articulate with the ilium of the coxal
    Auricular surfaces
  40. What portion of the sternum interacts with the clavicles?
  41. Are ribs attached to the xiphoid process
  42. What is the difference between true & false ribs?
    • True ribs connected to the sternum via costal cartilage; false ribs are connected to the costal cartilage of the 7th rib via costal
    • cartilage; floating ribs (false) have no attachment