BIO Lab Test #1

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Anonymous
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208211
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BIO Lab Test #1
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2013-03-19 17:09:59
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Biology
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Biology Lab 1051 Study Guide
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  1. What is a hypothesis?
    A tentative explanation about a phenomenon
  2. Independent variable
    (Predictor variable), the factor in the experiment that is deliberately changed or manipulated by the researcher
  3. Dependent Variable
    (Response variable), the factor that changes as a result of the changes made in the independent variable
  4. What are controls?
    Known or baseline value for the dependent variable in an experiment
  5. What are replicates?
    The number of test subjects or test groups exposed to the same level of treatment
  6. What variable if expressed on the X-axis?
    Independent variable
  7. What variable is expressed on the Y-axis?
    Dependent variable
  8. A good hypothesis should:
    Be a statement that is testable and falsifiable
  9. Primary Source
    Papers that are written by scientist that describe original research that they have conducted
  10. What is the most reliable source of scientific information?
    A peer reviewed primary source
  11. What are the components of a scientific paper?
    An abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, and literature cited section
  12. What is a peer review?
    When experts comment on the quality of the science and writing
  13. Secondary Sources
    Summarize the results of someone else's work
  14. What are the base units for Distance, Volume, and Mass?
    • Distance: Meters
    • Volume: Liters
    • Mass: Grams
  15. What is standard deviation?
    A measure of how much the data deviate (vary) from the mean
  16. Macronutrient
    Protein, carbohydrates, fat
  17. Micronutrient
    Vitamin and mineral
  18. Metabolism
    All chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living-state of the cells and the organism
  19. Calorie
    A unit of measurement; defined as the amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water by 1° Celsius
  20. What are the ranges of the categories of BMI?

    Underweight?
    Healthy Weight?
    Overweight?
    Obese?
    • Underweight: <20
    • Healthy Weight: 20-24.9
    • Overweight: 25-29.9
    • Obese: 30 or greater
  21. What does BMI stand for?
    Body Mass Index
  22. How is BMI calculated?
    •   weight in kg
    • (height in meters)²
  23. Which stores more energy?

    a) Fats
    b) Carbohydrates
    a) Fats
  24. Which takes more effort?

    a) Burning off a gram of fat because they contain more oxygen then carbs do they are more oxidized of "burned"
    b) Burning off a gram of carbohydrates because they contain more oxygen then fats do, they are already more oxidized or "burned"
    b
  25. Malnutrition
    Deficiencies in essential micronutrients
  26. How do you calculate kilocalories based on data from a sample experiment?
    (mass of water) * change in temp) * (1kg/1000g) * (specific heat)
  27. What is a cell?
    The basic building block of life and they are the smallest entities that exhibit characteristics of life
  28. Chromosomes
    An organized structure of DNA and protein
  29. What are the products of mitosis?
    Formation of 2 cells that are genetically identical to the starting cell
  30. What are the products of meiosis?
    Formation of four cells from each starting cell; has only half the genetic material as the starting cell
  31. What cells undergo Mitosis?
  32. What cells undergo Meiosis?
  33. What is a mutation?
  34. What does haploid mean?
    Cells that arose through meiosis and have only half the genetic material 
  35. What does diploid mean?
    Cell that arose through mitosis, contain a complete set of genetic material
  36. What type of cell contains all genetic material?
    Diploid
  37. What is binary fission?
    Way for unicellular cells to divide
  38. What does binary fission produce?
    2 identical cells
  39. Where is DNA stored?
    In the nucleus of a cell
  40. What regulates cell division?
  41. What is fertilization?
    When the egg and sperm come together
  42. What hormone triggers ovulation?
    Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  43. What hormone is detected by pregnancy tests?
    Human Chorionic Gonaditropin (HGC)
  44. What is genotype?
  45. What is phenotype?
  46. Happens in translation?
  47. What happens in transcription?
  48. What are restriction enzymes?
  49. What is an allele?
  50. What is a gene?
    Sections of DNA in chromosomes
  51. How can DNA be sorted?
    Through electrophoresis
  52. How is DNA fragment size measured?
    Measured in base pairs
  53. \What are short tandem repeats?
    DNA sequences that are 4-10 base pairs long that are repeated many times
  54. In gel electrophoresis, which fragments move the quickest?
    Smaller fragments
  55. What is the charge on DNA?
    Negative

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