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Complex foraging likely linked to
- -reduced sexual dimorphism
- -more dependence on learning
- -larger brain
- -longer juvenile period
- -longer life span
- -extensive male investment
- -male-female pair bonds
- -bipedal apes
- Early: S. tchadensis; O. tugenensis; A. ramidus
- All Australopiths
- All Paranthropines
- -Genus Homo
- H. ergaster
- H. erectus
- H. heidelbergensis
- H. neanderthalensis
The shift from bipedal apes to Homo begins
Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis main traits compared to Australopithocenes
- Slightly larger brain (but may be proportional to an increase inbody size – this is uncertain)
- Teeth are smaller with thinner enamel
- Dental arcade is more parabolic (less subnasal prognathism)
- Smaller face
- Skulls more rounded
- • Creatures appear in Africa with
- Large, robust bodies
- Long legs and short arms
- Slower growth rate
- Reduced sexual dimorphism
Early Homo ancestral traits
- -receding forehead
- -no chin
- -narrowing behind eyes
Early Homo derived traits
- -horizontal ridge on back skull
- -larger brow ridges
- -smaller, less protruding face
- -higher skull
- -smaller teeth
Post-cranial skeletons tell us a lot about H. ergasterbodies
- • The adults were quite tall (male 6’)
- • Long legs, narrow hips, narrow shoulders
- • Committed bipedality
- • Robust & heavily muscled
- • Shorter arms than earlier
- • Sexual dimorphism reduced
H. ergaster teeth well suited for
biting and tearing food(like raw meat)
H. ergaster controlled fire
- • At Swartkrans, burned animal bones found with H.ergaster fossils
- -camp fires made
Hominids moved into Asia
- -about 1.6 mya
- -called H.erectus
- -thicker skull
- -larger brow ridges
- -sides of skull slope more steeply
- -point at back of skull more pronounced
- -sagittal keel
Evidence of Meat Eating
Stone tools and bones found in Olduvai. Study of formation of kill sites. Tool marks on bones
Evidence of Scavenging
Cut marks on a variety of bones. Cut marks on top of carnivore tooth marks.
Homo ergaster Morphology
- -Narrowing of braincase,
- -receding forehead
- -no chin.
- -Shorter nose,
- -flatter face,
- -taller skull,
- -smaller jaws and molars,
- -large browridge.
- -Larger brain than earlier humans.
- -Fully adapted for terrestrial life (no trees). -Slower juvenile development.
- -No evidence of spoken language.
Homo ergaster Tools
- 1.6-1.4 mya ergaster improved upon Oldowan tools.
- -Added stone biface (Mode 2 innovation).
- -Could likely control fire.
Homo erectus Tools
Lack of Mode 2 tools related to different cognitive abilities than H. ergaster or to differences in materials available for toolmaking
800-500 kya. Evidence comes from areas as diverse as Spain and Zambia. Possibly coexisted with H. erectus.
Homo heiderlbergensis Morphology
- -Larger brains (1200-1300)
- -Higher forehead
- -more rounded skull
- -sides of skull more vertical
- -Large brow ridges
- -thick cranial bones
- -large, prognathic face
- -no chin
- -robust bodies
- 35-12 kya.
- -Only 3 feet tall.
- -Very small brains.
- -Isolated on Indonesian island. dwarfism.
H. heidelbergensis hunted
- -Big game
- -bones of mammoths and wooly rhino found at base
- -bones have been sorted by body parts
H.heidelbergensis tool use
- -300 kya
- -flake tools
- -striking large, symmetrical flakes from core
- -sharp edge
- -Levallois technique (mode 3)
- 127-30 kya.
- -Europe and western Asia.
- -Mode 3 tools (mousterian).
- -Big-game hunters.
- -Purposeful burial of the dead.
- -shelter in natural rock caves
- -"cave men" of popular culture
- -Bulging faces.
- -Double arched brow ridges.
- -Large cranial capacity (1400).
- -Robust, heavily muscled bodies.
- • H. ergaster originates inAfrica
- • H. ergaster ---->H. erectus inAsia
- • H. ergaster ---> H.heidelbergensis in Africa
- • H. heidelbergensis moves intoAsia & Eurasia
- • H. heidelbergensis----> H.neanderthalensis in Eurasia
- • H. heidelbergensis ----> H.sapiens in Africa
- • H. sapiens moves out of Africaand replaces all
- -dates to 6 mya
- -hominin with a mix of chimpanzee and human traits.
- -the tooth enamel is thick, like that of humans
- -shape and size of their teeth are more chimpanzee-like
- -the oldest hominin ever found, dating from about 7 to 6 million years ago
- -large browridge
- -relatively flat face,
- -5- 6 milion years ago
- -brain and body size similar to modern chimps
- -large canines compared to humans
- -large sagittal crest
- -flaring zygomatic arches (cheekbones)
Main features of bipedality and functionality
- -wide ilium of pelvis
- -Femur - long femoral neck and slant
- -placement of foramen magnum
- -arched foot
Evidence of bipedality
Adaptive advantages of bipedalism
- 1. Reduce heat
- -less surface area
- 2. Freeing hands to do things or carry things
- -pronounced sexual dimorphism,
- -postcranial features that are adaptations to arboreality,
- -robust skulls,
- -and small brain sizes (with the exception of A. rudolfensis)
- -The paranthropines are similar to the australopithecines from the neck down, but they had
- -massive cheek teeth and jaws for chewing tough plant materials
- - a skull modified to carry the enormous muscles needed for this type of chewing.