Anthro 7: Week 6

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dante01
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208221
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Anthro 7: Week 6
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2013-03-19 16:30:52
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  1. Complex foraging likely linked to
    • -reduced sexual dimorphism
    • -more dependence on learning
    • -larger brain
    • -longer juvenile period
    • -longer life span
    • -extensive male investment 
    • -male-female pair bonds
  2. Hominin
    • -bipedal apes
    • -Includes
    • 􀂋 Early: S. tchadensis; O. tugenensis; A. ramidus
    • 􀂋 All Australopiths
    • 􀂋 All Paranthropines
    • 􀂋 Kenyanthropus
  3. Hominid
    • -Genus Homo
    • -Includes
    • 􀂋 H. ergaster
    • 􀂋 H. erectus
    • 􀂋 H. heidelbergensis
    • 􀂋 H. neanderthalensis
  4. The shift from bipedal apes to Homo begins
    about1.8 mya
  5. Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis main traits compared to Australopithocenes
    • 􀂋 Slightly larger brain (but may be proportional to an increase inbody size – this is uncertain)
    • 􀂋 Teeth are smaller with thinner enamel
    • 􀂋 Dental arcade is more parabolic (less subnasal prognathism)
    • 􀂋 Smaller face
    • 􀂋 Skulls more rounded
  6. Homo ergaster
    • • Creatures appear in Africa with
    • 􀂋 Large, robust bodies
    • 􀂋 Long legs and short arms
    • 􀂋 Slower growth rate
    • 􀂋 Reduced sexual dimorphism
  7. Early Homo ancestral traits
    • -receding forehead
    • -no chin
    • -narrowing behind eyes
  8. Early Homo derived traits
    • -horizontal ridge on back skull
    • -larger brow ridges
    • -smaller, less protruding face
    • -higher skull
    • -smaller teeth
  9. Post-cranial skeletons tell us a lot about H. ergasterbodies
    • • The adults were quite tall (male 6’)
    • • Long legs, narrow hips, narrow shoulders
    • • Committed bipedality
    • • Robust & heavily muscled
    • • Shorter arms than earlier 
    • • Sexual dimorphism reduced
  10. H. ergaster teeth well suited for
    biting and tearing food(like raw meat)
  11. H. ergaster controlled fire
    • • At Swartkrans, burned animal bones found with H.ergaster fossils
    • -camp fires made
  12. Hominids moved into Asia
    • -about 1.6 mya
    • -called H.erectus
  13. H.erectus has
    • -thicker skull
    • -larger brow ridges
    • -sides of skull slope more steeply
    • -point at back of skull more pronounced 
    • -sagittal keel
  14. Evidence of Meat Eating
    Stone tools and bones found in Olduvai. Study of formation of kill sites. Tool marks on bones
  15. Evidence of Scavenging
    Cut marks on a variety of bones. Cut marks on top of carnivore tooth marks.
  16. Homo ergaster Morphology
    • Primitive
    • -Narrowing of braincase,
    • -receding forehead
    • -no chin.
    • Derived
    • -Shorter nose,
    • -flatter face,
    • -taller skull,
    • -smaller jaws and molars,
    • -large browridge.
    • -Larger brain than earlier humans.
    • -Fully adapted for terrestrial life (no trees). -Slower juvenile development.
    • -No evidence of spoken language.
  17. Homo ergaster Tools
    • 1.6-1.4 mya ergaster improved upon Oldowan tools.
    • -Added stone biface (Mode 2 innovation).
    • -Could likely control fire.
  18. Homo erectus Tools
    Lack of Mode 2 tools related to different cognitive abilities than H. ergaster or to differences in materials available for toolmaking
  19. Homo heidelbergensis
    800-500 kya. Evidence comes from areas as diverse as Spain and Zambia. Possibly coexisted with H. erectus.
  20. Homo heiderlbergensis Morphology
    • Derived:
    • -Larger brains (1200-1300)
    • -Higher forehead
    • -more rounded skull
    • -sides of skull more vertical 
    • Ancestral
    • -Large brow ridges
    • -thick cranial bones
    • -large, prognathic face
    • -no chin
    • -robust bodies
  21. Homo floresiensis
    • 35-12 kya.
    • -Only 3 feet tall.
    • -Very small brains.
    • -Isolated on Indonesian island. dwarfism.
  22. H. heidelbergensis hunted
    • -Big game
    • -bones of mammoths and wooly rhino found at base
    • -bones have been sorted by body parts
  23. H.heidelbergensis tool use
    • -300 kya
    • -flake tools
    • -striking large, symmetrical flakes from core 
    • -sharp edge
    • -Levallois technique (mode 3)
  24. Neanderthals
    • 127-30 kya.
    • -Europe and western Asia.
    • -Mode 3 tools (mousterian).
    • -Big-game hunters.
    • -Purposeful burial of the dead.
    • -shelter in natural rock caves
    • -"cave men" of popular culture
  25. Neanderthals Morphology
    • -Bulging faces.
    • -Double arched brow ridges.
    • -Large cranial capacity (1400).
    • -Robust, heavily muscled bodies.
  26. Species view
    • • H. ergaster originates inAfrica
    • • H. ergaster ---->H. erectus inAsia
    • • H. ergaster ---> H.heidelbergensis in Africa
    • • H. heidelbergensis moves intoAsia & Eurasia
    • • H. heidelbergensis----> H.neanderthalensis in Eurasia
    • • H. heidelbergensis ----> H.sapiens in Africa
    • • H. sapiens moves out of Africaand replaces all
  27. Orrorin tugenensis
    • -dates to 6 mya
    • -hominin with a mix of chimpanzee and human traits.
    • -the tooth enamel is thick, like that of humans
    • -shape and size of their teeth are more chimpanzee-like
  28. Sahelanthropus tchadensis
    • -the oldest hominin ever found, dating from about 7 to 6 million years ago
    • -large browridge  
    • -relatively flat face,
  29. Ardipithecus ramidus
  30. Ardipithecus kadabba
    • -5- 6 milion years ago
    • -brain and body size similar to modern chimps
    • -large canines compared to humans
  31. Paranthropus
    • -large sagittal crest
    • -flaring zygomatic arches (cheekbones)
  32. Main features of bipedality and functionality
    • -wide ilium of pelvis
    • -Femur - long femoral neck and slant
    • -placement of foramen magnum
    • -arched foot
  33. Evidence of bipedality
    Laetoli footprints
  34. Adaptive advantages of bipedalism
    • 1. Reduce heat
    • -less surface area
    • 2. Freeing hands to do things or carry things
  35. Australopithecines features
    • -pronounced sexual dimorphism,
    • -postcranial features that are adaptations to arboreality,
    • -robust skulls,
    • -and small brain sizes (with the exception of A. rudolfensis)
  36. Parathropines
    • -The paranthropines are similar to the australopithecines from the neck down, but they had
    • -massive cheek teeth and jaws for chewing tough plant materials
    • - a skull modified to carry the enormous muscles needed for this type of chewing.

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