Linguistic Anthropology Exam 2

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tandrus
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Linguistic Anthropology Exam 2
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2013-03-21 11:41:57
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linguistic anthropology
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Linguistic Anthropology Exam 2 Review
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  1. Anatomy
    study of the structure of body parts
  2. Phisiology
    study of the functions and relationship of body parts
  3. larynx
    -the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals

    -the voice box
  4. resonator
    an apparatus that increases the resonance of a sound, especially a hollow part of a musical instrument
  5. hyoid bone
    • a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of
    • the neck between the chin and the thyroid cartilage. Directly beneath the
    • tongue. Supports the weight of the tongue, allowing the articulation of words
    • while speaking and enabling the production of a wide range of vocalizations
  6. pinna
    -the external part of the ear in humans

    -the auricle
  7. tympanic membrane
    a membrane forming part of the organ of hearing which vibrates in response to sound waves

    in humans it forms the eardrum, between the outer and middle ear
  8. ossicle
    a very small bone, especially those in the middle ear. Incus, malleus, stapes.
  9. cochlea
    the spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the organ of Corti, which produces nerve impules in response to sound vibrations
  10. historical linguistics
    • -the study of how languages change over time
    • -relies on regularity
    • -large changes usually follow "rules" that affect words and sounds at the same time at a semi-regular pace
  11. lexical diffusion
    • -sound changes spreading through the lexicon of a language 
    • -modern view, William Labov, 1960s
  12. assimilation
    one sound influenced by the pronunciation of a neighboring sound

    ten bucks vs. tembucks
  13. Dissimilation
    when the same consonant sound appears close together, one will disappear (usually the first consonant)

    Surprise - Supprise
  14. Prosthesis
    introduction of an extra sound at the beginning of a word

    English "school" to Hindi "iskuul"
  15. aposcope
    loss of final sounds

    Old English - helpe to help
  16. haplology
    the loss of one of two repetitive syllables 

    • Probably to probly
    • Anglaland to England
  17. social factors of language loss
    at any point in a language, some will speak the old way, some the new way.

    can create or reinforce social boundaries

    -male vs female, etc.
  18. Gullah/Geechee
    • -Creole language of the Gullah people
    • -English base with elements from various West African languages
    • -Coast of South Carolina and nearby islands
  19. Slaves and Rice
    -South Carolina colonists found rice as a new staple cash crop after sugar market collapse of 1680s. 

    -Higher price for slaves who knew how to grow rice
  20. Slave Trade Act of 1808
    • -made it illegal to bring any more slaves from Africa into the US
    • -Created a large smuggling trade
  21. continuity theory
    theory that language is so complex that it must have evolved from earlier pre-linguistic systems among our primate ancestors
  22. discontinuity theory
    theory that language is a unique trait so it cannot be compared to anything found among non-humans and must have appeared suddenly during the course of human evolution
  23. monogenesis
    theory of human origins which posits a common descent for all human races
  24. dresden codex
    • -pre-Columbian Maya book of the 11th or 12th century
    • -believed to be a copy of an original text of some 300-400 years earlier
    • -the oldest book written in the Americas known to historians
  25. brain endocast
    • -the internal cast of a cranial vault
    • -used to show the size and shape of the brain
  26. pidgin
    • -a grammatically simplified form of a language with elements taken from local languages
    • -used for communication between people not sharing a common language
    • -very limited vocabulary, arises out of language contact between speakers of other languages
  27. creole
    • -of or relating to a language that arises from contact between two other languages and have features of both
    • -originates from a pidgin
  28. Lingua Franca
    • -aka working language, bridge language, vehicular language or unifying language
    • -a language system systematically used to make communications possible between people not sharing a mother tongue
  29. basilect
    • -a less prestigious dialect or a variety of a particular language
    • -used especially in the study of creoles
  30. acrolect
    • -the most prestigious dialect or variety of a particular language
    • -used especially in the study of creoles
  31. symbol
    • -a thing that represents or stands for something else
    • -a mark or character used as a conventional representation of an object, function or process
  32. writing
    a sequence of letters, words or symbols marked on paper or some other surface
  33. Cuneiform
    denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped characters used in ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia and Ugarit, surviving mainly impressed on clay tablets
  34. pictographic writing
    ideograms that convey their meanings through their pictoral resemblance to physical objects

    -cave paintings, ancient Sumerian, Egyptian, Chinese
  35. idographic writing
    • -from the Greek idea "idea" and grafo "to write"
    • -a graphical symbol that represents an idea or concept
  36. Rebus Principle
    • -using existing symbols, such as pictograms, purely for their sounds, regardless of their meaning to represent new words
    • -used by many ancient writing systems to represent abstract words
    • -Ex. "I can see you" could be represented by pictograms: "eye-can-sea-ewe"
  37. logographic writing
    • -a logogram or logograph is a grapheme which represents a word or a morepheme rather than ideas
    • -include earliest true writing systems: first historical civilizations of the Near East, Africa, China and Central America
  38. syllabic writing
    • -(syllabary) a set of written characters for a language, each representing a syllable
    • -Includes Mycenaean Greek, Cherokee, Vai, hiragana and katakana of Japanese
  39. alphabetic writing
    writing based on an alphabet, a standard set of letters used to write one or more languages based on the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds of the spoken language)
  40. consonantal writing
    • -a type of phonetic writing system in which only consonants are represented
    • -Abjads. Includes Arabic, Hebrew
  41. worldview
    a particular philosophy of life or conception of the world
  42. focal vocabulary
    a set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers
  43. linguistic determinism
    the idea that language its structures limit and determine human knowledge or thought
  44. linguistic relativity
    • -the structure of language affects the way in which its speakers conceptualize their world (worldview) or otherwise influences their cognitive processes
    • -Strong version - language determines thought and linguistic categories limit and determine cognitive categories
    • -Weak version - linguistic categories and usage influence thought and certain kinds of non-linguistic behavior
  45. Ethnoscience
    the study of the different ways the world is perceived and categorized in different cultures
  46. Yoruba colors
    • -Yoruba artists possess a strong color philosophy that is understood by the Yoruba people to invoke an emotional and personality aspect of individuals
    • -more than a palette of colors, but a way to understand people and deities
    • -most illustrated in the art of beading
  47. Hanunoo colors
    • -color distinctions made at two levels of contrast
    • -first, more general level consists of an all-inclusive, coordinate, four-way classification, which are mutually exclusive in contrastive contexts.
    • -second level consists of hundreds of specific color categories, many of which overlap and interdigitate
  48. Berlin and Kay color tests
    • -identified 11 possible basic color categories: white, black, red, green, yellow, blue, brown, purple, pink, orange and grey
    • -found there is a maximum number of categories in any language for color
  49. semantics
    • -the meaning of a word, phrase, sentence or text
    • -the branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning
  50. semiotic triangle
    • -aka the triangle of reference
    • -a model of how linguistic symbols are related to the objects they represent
  51. reference
    • -linguistic sign - the combination of content and expression, the former of which may refer entities in the world or refer more abstract concepts, like thought
    • -certain parts of speech only exist to express reference (pronouns)
    • -A term's reference is the object to which the term refers
  52. sense
    the way that a term refers to an object (reference)
  53. denotation
    the literal or primary meaning of a word
  54. connotation
    an idea or feeling that a word invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning
  55. semantic differential scale
    • -a type of rating scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects, events and concepts
    • -connotations are used to derive the attitude toward the given object, event or concept
  56. kinship terms
    • -the various systems used in languages to refer to the persons to whom an individual is related through kinship
    • -different societies classify kinship relationships differently and therefore use different systems of kinship terminology
  57. name
    a word or set of words by which a person, animal, place or thing is known, addressed or referred to
  58. surname
    a hereditary name common to all members of a family, as distinct from a given name
  59. Mason Crum
    • -Studied Gullah
    • -theorized Gullah was wholly English, dialectical English of the uneducated
    • -observed slight differences among the different islands
  60. Guy B. Johnson
    • -Studied Gullah
    • -thought Gullah was wholly English
    • -taught a simplified "baby talk" version of English to slaves
  61. Lorenzo Turner
    • -First black man to study Gullah
    • -theorized it was a creole of English and various West African languages of the slaves
    • -based on 300 proverbs, songs, folktales and interviews
  62. sound
    vibrations that travel through the air or another medium and can be heard when they reach a person or animal's ear
  63. actuators
    • -facilitate high frequency vibrations most commonly used to enhance or amplify sound through the air or structures
    • -convert electrical signals into pressure waves in the air
  64. Old English
    • -language of the Anglo-Saxons (up to ~1150)
    • -a highly inflected language with largely Germanic vocabulary, very different from modern English
  65. Middle English
    the English language from c. 1150 to c. 1470
  66. Early Modern English
    • -stage of English used from the beginning of the Tudor period until the English Interregnum and Restoration
    • -First edition King James Bible, Shakespeare
    • -Elizabethan English
  67. Late Modern English
    Modern English as we know it, with many dialects spoken in diverse countries throughout the world
  68. The Great Vowel Shift
    • -major change in the pronunciation of English in England between 1350 and 1700
    • -first studied by Otto Jespersen
    • -Responsible for many of the peculiarities of English spelling
  69. Levels of Endangerment
    • -Safe
    • -Vulnerable - not spoken by children outside the home
    • -Definitely endangered - children not speaking
    • -Severely endangered - only spoken by oldest generations
    • -Critically endangered - spoken by a few members of the oldest generation, often semi-speakers
  70. moribund
    • -in terminal decline
    • -at the point of death
  71. glottochronology
    the use of statistical data to date the divergence of language from their common sources
  72. gossiping
    casual or unconstrained conversation or reports about other people, typically involving details that are not confirmed as being true
  73. Bow-wow
    • -aka cuckoo
    • -one of Muller's hypotheses
    • -saw early words as imitations of the cries of beasts and birds
  74. Pooh-Pooh
    • -one of Muller's hypotheses
    • -first words emotional interjections and exclamations triggered by pain, pleasure, surprise, etc
  75. Ding-dong
    • -one of Mueller's hypotheses
    • -all things have a vibrating resonance, echoed somehow by man in his earliest words
  76. Yo-he-ho
    • -one of Muller's hypotheses
    • -language emerged out of collective rhythmic labor
    • -the attempt to synchronize muscular effort resulting in sounds such as heave alternating with sounds such as ho
  77. Australopithecus afarensis
    • -Lucy
    • -small brain (~1 pint)
    • -Bipedal
    • -3-4mya
  78. Australopithecus africanus
    • -3mya
    • -likely ancestor of homo habilis
  79. Homo habilis
    • -considered to be the first human, though far removed from modern humans
    • -1.9-1.6mya
    • -Braincase capacity ~1/2 of modern humans
    • -Shorter, tool makers
    • -Increase group activity, culturally patterned means of subsistence rather than instinct alone
  80. Homo erectus
    • -2mya
    • -Africa to Asia to Europe
    • -Multipurpose hand axe, other tools for cutting, piercing, chopping, scraping
    • -Proficient large game hunters
    • -Used fire
    • -Greater cultural complexity
    • -increased brain size (~1 quart, 1000 CCs)
  81. Homo neanderthalensis
    • -had a hyoid bone, may have been capable of producing sounds similar to modern humans
    • -probably didn't have a fully modern language
    • -first to bury dead
  82. Homo sapiens
    • -anatomically modern humans
    • -first appeared 195kya in Ethiopia
    • -language fully developed with this species at some point
    • -possessed the anatomical ability for speech
  83. William Labov
    • -pioneered theory of lexical diffusion
    • -sociolinguistic change
    • -differences in speech between genders
  84. King Aethelbert
    Aethelbert's Law for Kent was the earliest written code in any Germanic language
  85. King Alfred the Great
    • -Tried to revive learning
    • -required literacy of at lest those holding a court position
  86. William Caxton
    • -Thought to be the first person to work as a printer and first to introduce a printing press into England
    • -Translated a large number of works into English
    • -Credited w/ standardizing English through printing
  87. Samuel Johnson
    • -published a dictionary of English in 1755
    • -recognized as having a lasting effect on literary criticism
  88. Noah Webster
    • -lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English spelling reformer
    • -Father of American Scholarship and Education
    • -Merriam-Webster dictionary
  89. Sir William Jones
    • -pioneer of historical linguistics
    • -suspected that many European languages were related, parent language might be Sanskrit
  90. Max Muller
    • -German scholar of comparative language
    • -interested in Sanskrit philology
  91. Diego de Landa
    • -Spanish bishop
    • -writings about pre-Columbia Maya civilization
  92. J. Eric Thompson
    • -Mesoamerican archaeologist
    • -contributions to understanding Maya hieroglyphics
  93. Yuri Knorosov
    pivotal role in deciphering Maya script
  94. David Stuart
    monumental discoveries in deciphering Mayan written language
  95. Edward Sapir
    • -one of the first to address sound symbolism
    • -interested in the language-culture relationship
  96. Benjamin Lee Whorf
    • -principle of linguistic determinism
    • -principle of linguistic relativity
  97. Noam Chomsky
    • -showed grammar across the world is very similar if examined thoroughly
    • -Transformational grammar movement
    • -Universalism
  98. Charles Osgood
    -developed semantic differential scale
  99. William Gladstone
    work on color terminology
  100. W.H.R. Rivers
    work with kinship terminology
  101. Verne F. Ray
    work with American Indians of the Northwest
  102. Claude Levi-Strauss
    • -structural anthropology interested in absolute antonyms
    • -termed binary oppositions
  103. C. M. Mathews
    • -works on English surnames
    • -Place names

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