Reproductive anatomy and physiology

Card Set Information

Author:
jknell
ID:
208288
Filename:
Reproductive anatomy and physiology
Updated:
2013-03-19 16:37:44
Tags:
Step
Folders:

Description:
Repro anatomy, physiology
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user jknell on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Gonadal drainage
    venous, lymphatic
    • Venous drainage:
    • -Left ovary/testis → left gonadal vein → left renal vein → IVC
    • **Just as left adrenal vein drains to left renal vein
    • **flow is less continuous on the left than on the right → L venous pressure > R venous pressure: Varicocele more common on the left
    • -Right ovary/testis → right gonadal vein → IVC

    • Lymphatic drainage:
    • -Ovaries/testes → para-aortic lymph node
    • -Distal 1/3 of vagina/vulva/scrotum → superficial inguinal nodes
    • -Proximal 2/3 of vagina/uterus → obturator, external iliac and hypogastric nodes
  2. Suspensory ligament of the ovary
    Connects, contains (structures)
    • Connects: ovaries to lateral pelvic wall
    • Contains: ovarian vessels
    • Ureter at risk of injury during ligation of ovarian vessels in oophorectomy
    • *Suspensory ligament suspends ovary to pelvic wall
  3. Cardinal ligament
    Connects, contains (structures)
    • Connects: Cervix to side wall of pelvis
    • Contains: uterine vessels
    • Ureter at risk of injury during ligation of uterine vessels in hysterectomy
  4. Round ligament of the uterus
    Connects, contains (structures)
    • Connects: Uterine fundus to labia majora
    • Contains: Artery of Sampson
    • Derivative of gubernaculum
    • Travels through round inguinal canal
  5. Broad ligament
    Connects, contains (structures)
    • Connects: Uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries to pelvic side wall
    • Contains: Ovaries, fallopian tubes, round ligament of the uterus
    • *Mesosalpinx, mesometrium, and mesovarium are the components of the broad ligament
  6. Ligament of the ovary
    Connects, contains (structures)
    • Connects: Medial pole of ovary to lateral uterus
    • Contains: none
    • Ligametn of the ovary Latches ovary to Lateral uterus
    • Derivative of the gubernaculum
  7. Female reproductive epithelial histology
    • Vagina: Stratified squamous epithelium, nonkeratinized
    • Ectocervix: Stratified squamous epithelium
    • Endocervix: Simple columnar epithelium
    • Uterus: Simple columnar epithelium, pseudostratified tubular glands
    • Fallopian tube: Simple columnar epithelium, ciliated
    • Ovary: Simple cuboidal epithelium
  8. Pathway of sperm during ejaculation
    • SEVEN UP:
    • Seminiferous tubules
    • Epididymis
    • Vas deferens
    • Ejaculatory ducts
    • (Nothing)
    • Urethra
    • Penis
  9. Innervation of male sexual response
    Erection, Emission, Ejaculation
    • Erection:
    • Parasympathetic nervous system (pelvic nerve):
    • -NO → ↑cGMP → smooth muscle relaxation → vasodilation → proerectile
    • -NE → ↑ [Ca2+]in → smooth muscle contraction → vasoconstriction → antierectile

    EmissionSympathetic nervous sytem (hypogastric nerve)

    Ejaculation: visceral and somatic nerves (pudendal nerve)

    Point and Shoot

    Sildenafil and vardenafil inhibit cGMP breakdown
  10. Seminiferous tubules
    cells
    • Spermatogonia (germ cells)
    • Sertoli cells (non-germ cells)
    • Leydig cells (endocrine cells)
  11. Spermatogonia
    function, location
    • Maintain germ pool
    • Produce 1° spermatocytes
    • Line seminiferous tubules
  12. Sertoli cells
    Function, location
    • Function:
    • -Secrete inhibin → inhibit FSH
    • -Secrete androgen-binding protein (ABP) → maintain local levels of testosterone
    • -Tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells form blood-testis barrier → isolate gametes from autoimmune attack
    • -Support and nourish developing spermatozoa (Italian nurses)
    • -Regulate spermatogenesis
    • -Produce anti-müllerian hormone
    • -Temperature sensitive: ↓ sperm production and ↓ inhibin with ↑ temperature
    • **↑ temperature with varicocele, cryptorchidism

    • Location:
    • -Line seminiferous tubules

    Sertoli cells Support Sperm Synthesis
  13. Leydig cells
    Function, location
    • Secrete testosterone
    • *Testosterone production unaffected by temperature
    • Location: interstitium
  14. Spermatogenesis
    • Begins at puberty with Spermatogonia
    • Full development takes 2 months
    • Occurs in seminiferous tubules
    • Produces Spermatids → spermiogenesis (loss of cytoplasmic contents, gain of acrosomal cap) to form mature Spermatozoon

    **"Gonium" is going to be sperm; "Zoon" is "Zooming" to egg
    • Impaired tail mobility can lead to infertility
    • -Ciliary dyskinesia
    • -Kartagener's syndrome
  15. Spermatid haploid goes on to become mature spermatozoon haploid (N)
  16. Regulation of spermatogenesis
  17. Androgens
    types, source, potency
    • Testis:
    • -Testosterone
    • -Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

    • ADrenal:
    • -AnDrostenedione

    Potency: DHT > testosterone > androstenedione
  18. Testosterone
    Function
    • -Differentiation of epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles (internal genitalia, except prostate)
    • -Growth spurt: Penis, seminal vesicles, sperm, muscle, RBCs
    • -Deepening of voice
    • -Closing of epiphysial plates (via estrogen converted from testosterone)
    • -Libido
  19. DHT
    Function
    • -Early: differentiation of penis, scrotum, prostate
    • -Late: prostate growth, balding, sebacious land activity
  20. Androgens
    conversions
    Testosterone → DHT by 5α-reductase, inhibited by finasteride

    • Testosterone and androstenedione  → estrogen in adipose tissue and Leydig cells by the enzyme aromatase
    • -(Aromatse is the key enzyme in the conversion of androgens to estrogen)

    Exogenous testosterone → inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis → ↓ intratesticular testosterone  → ↓ testicular size  → azoospermia
  21. Estrogen
    types, source, potency
    • Ovary: 17β-estradiol
    • Placenta: estriol
    • Adipose tissue: estrone
    • ---Potency: Estradiol > estrone > estriol
    • ---Estrogen receptor expressed in cytoplasm; translocates to nucleus when bound by ligand
  22. Estrogen
    Function
    • -Development of genitalia and breast, female fat distribution
    • -Growth of follicles, endometrial proliferation, ↑ myometrial excitability
    • -Upregulation of estrogen, LH, and progesterone receptors; feeback inhibition of FSH and LH, then LH surge; stimulation of prolactin secretion (but blocks its action at breast)
    • - ↑ transport proteins, SHBG; ↑ HDL; ↓ LDL
  23. Estrogen
    Pregnancy
    • 50-fold ↑ in estradiol and estrone
    • 1000-fold ↑ in estriol (indicator of fetal well-being)
  24. Progesterone
    Source, function
    • Source:
    • -corpus luteum
    • -placenta
    • -adrenal cortex
    • -testes

    • Function:
    • -Stimulation of endometrial glandular secretions and spiral artery development
    • -Maintenance of pregnancy
    • - ↓ myometrial excitability
    • -Production of thick cervical mucus, which inhibits sperm entry into the uterus
    • - ↑ body temperature
    • - Inhibition of gonadotropins (LH, FSH)
    • - Uterine smooth muscle relaxation (preventing contractions)
    • - ↓ estrogen receptor expressivity

    • **Elevation of progesterone is indicative of ovulation
    • **Progesterone is pro-gestation
  25. Tanner stages of sexual development
    • I. Childhood
    • II. Pubic hair appears (pubarche); breast bud form (thelarche)
    • III. Pubic hair darkens and becomes curly; penis size/length ↑; breasts enlarge
    • IV. Penis width ↑, darker scrotal skin, development of glans; raised areolae
    • V. Adult; areolae are no longer raised
  26. Menstrual cycle
    endometrium
  27. Menstrual cycle
    Hormone levels
  28. Menstrual cycle
    hormone sequence
  29. Menstrual cycle
    • Follicular phase can vary in lenth
    • Luteal phase is constant: 14 days
    • Ovulation day + 14 days = menstruation
    • Folicular growth: fastest during 2nd week of proliferative phase
    • Estrogen: stimulates endometrial proliferation
    • Progesterone: maintains endometrium (for implantation)
    • **↓ Progesterone means ↓ fertility
  30. Abnormal menstrual cycles
    • Oliogmenorrhea: >35 day cycle
    • Polymenorrhea: <21 day cycle
    • Metrorrhagia: frequent but irregular menstruation
    • Menometrorrhagia: heavy, irregular menstruation at irregular intervals
  31. Ovulation
    • ↑ estrogen, ↑ GnRH receptors on anterior pituitary
    • Estrogen surge then stimulates LH release, causing ovulation (rupture of follicle)
    • ↑ temperature (progesterone induced)
  32. Mittelschmerz
    Blood from ruptured follicle or follicular enlargement cause peritoneal irritation that can mimic appendicitis
  33. Oogenesis
    • 1° oocyte begin in meiosis I during fetal life
    • Complete meiosis I just prior to ovulation: arrested in prOphase I for years until Ovulation (1° oocyte)
    • Meiosis II is arrested in metaphase II until fertilization (2° oocytes) **An egg met a sperm
    • If fertilization does not occur within 1 day, the  2° oocyte degenerates
  34. Oogenesis
  35. Pregnancy
    fertilization, implantation, detection
    • Fertilization: most commonly occurs in upper end of fallopian tube (ampula)
    • -Occurs within 1 day of ovulation

    Implantation: day 6 post fertilization

    • Detection: trophoblasts secrete hCG
    • -detectable in blood 1 week after conception 
    • -in urine: 2 weeks after conception
  36. Pregnancy
    hormones
  37. Lactation
    • After labor: ↓ in progesterone disinhibits lactation
    • Suckling is required to maintain milk production
    • ↑ nerve stimulation ↑ oxytocin and prolactin
    • Prolactin: induces and maintains lactation and ↓ reproductive function
    • Oxytocin: appears to help with milk let down; may be involved in uterine contractions
  38. hCG
    Source, function
    Source: Syncytiotrophoblast of placenta

    • Function: Maintains the corpus luteum (and thus progesterone) for 1st trimester by acting like LH
    • 2nd, 3rd trimetsers: placenta synthesizes its own estriol and progesterone; corpus luteum degenerates

    • Elevated hCG: pathologic states
    • -hydatidiform mole
    • -Choriocarcinoma
  39. Menopause
    • ↓ estrogen production
    • Due to age-linked decline in number of ovarian follicles
    • average age: 51 (earlier in smokers); <40 indicates premature ovarian failure
    • Preceded by 4-5 years of abnormal cycles
    • Estrone becomes main source; ↑ androgens cause hirsutism
    • ↑↑ FSH is the best test to confirm menopause (loss of negative feedback for FSH due to ↓ estrogen)
  40. Menopause
    hormone changes
    • ↓ estrogen
    • ↑↑ FSH
    • ↑ LH (no surge)
    • ↑ GnRH
  41. Menopause
    Sx
    • HHAVOC:
    • Hirsutism
    • Hot flashes
    • Atrophy of the Vagina
    • Ostoporosis
    • Coronary artery disease

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview