NCLEXLABVALUES

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Author:
TomWruble
ID:
208300
Filename:
NCLEXLABVALUES
Updated:
2014-02-26 12:45:08
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keynursing
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Description:
Key Nursing Lab Values
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  1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
    8-20 units/L

    Enzyme found in the liver and other organs.

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Liver disease
    • Hepatitis
    • Cirrhosis

    clients with liver disease need diet of increased carbohydrates, low protein, and low sodium
  2. Albumin
    3.5 - 5.0 g/dL

    • Decreased values indicate possible:
    • Hepatic disease
  3. Alkaline phosphatase
    4-128 units/L

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Hepatic disease
    • Biliary obstruction
  4. Ammonia
    15-110 mg/dL

    Increased values indicate possible severe hepatocellular injury, i.e. Hepatic disease such as cirrhosis or fulminant hepatitis.
  5. aPTT
    30-40 seconds
  6. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
    5-40 units/L

    Enzyme found in the liver and other organs.

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Liver disease
    • Hepatitis
    • Cirrhosis

    clients with liver disease need diet of increased carbohydrates, low protein, and low sodium
  7. Bilirubin, Conjugated (direct)
    0.1-0.3 mg/dL

    • Increased indicate possible:
    • Biliary obstruction
  8. Bilirubin (total)
    0.1-1.0 mg/dL

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Hemolysis
    • Biliary obstruction
    • Hepatic damage
  9. Bilirubin, Unconjugated (indirect)
    0.2-0.8 mg/dL

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Hemolysis
    • Hepatic damage
  10. BNP
    < 100 pg/mL
  11. BUN
    Blood Urea Nitrogen

    7 - 18 mg/dL

    • Increased with renal disease
    • Decreased levels caused by severe liver damage, low-protein diet, overhydration, and malnutrition           

    clients with renal disease need a diet with limited protein and restricted potassium, sodium, and phosphorous
  12. C-reactive protein
    <1.0 mg/dL
  13. Calcium
    9.0-10.5 mg/dL (values decrease in older adults)

    • Decreased values indicate possible:
    • Malabsorption (Ca+ is absorbed in GI)
    • Renal failure
    • Acute pancreatitis
  14. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9)
    <37 units/mL

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Cancer of the pancreas, stomach, colon
    • Acute pancreatitis
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
  15. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
    • Nonsmoker: <2.5 ng/mL
    • Smoker: up to 5 ng/mL

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Colorectal, stomach, pancreatic cancer
    • Ulcerative colitis
    • Crohn's disease
    • HepatitisCirrhosis
  16. Chloride
    98-110 mEq/L
  17. Cholesterol
    <200 mg/dL

    levels higher than 250 mg/dL may require medication if diet therapy is not effective

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Pancreatitis
    • Biliary obstruction

    • Decreased values indicate possible:
    • Liver cell damage

    For low/moderate-risk: LDL < 100 mg/dL, HDL > 40 mg/dL (soon to get higher...)

    Controversial but elevated Homocysteine may block nitric oxide production making the cell walls less elastic.
  18. CK
    50-100 U/L
  19. Creatinine
    0.5 to 1.4 mg/dL

    elevated with renal disease

    clients with renal disease need a diet with limited protein and restricted potassium, sodium, and phosphorous
  20. D-Dimer
    <0.5 mg/L
  21. Digoxin (Lanoxin)
    toxic levels for digoxin are over 2 ng/mL

    normal therapeutic level of digoxin in the blood is between 0.5 and 2 ng/mL
  22. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
    < 20mm/hr

    It is a common hematology test, and is a non-specific measure of inflammation.

    The ESR is governed by the balance between pro-sedimentation factors, mainly fibrinogen, and those factors resisting sedimentation, namely the negative charge of the erythrocytes (zeta potential). When an inflammatory process is present, the high proportion of fibrinogen in the blood causes red blood cells to stick to each other.
  23. Glucose
    70-110 mg/dL
  24. HCO3
    22-28 mEq/L
  25. Hematocrit
    • Females: 37 - 47%
    • Males:     42 - 52%

    • Decreased levels: anemia or hemorrhage
    • Increased levels: chronis hypoxia or polycythemia vera

    with anemia need a diet high in protein, iron, and vitamins
  26. Hemoglobin
    • Females: 12 - 16 g/dL
    • Males:     14 - 18 g/dL

    • Decreased levels: anemia or hemorrhage
    • Increased levels: chronis hypoxia or polycythemia vera

    with anemia need a diet high in protein, iron, and vitamins
  27. HgB A1C
    30-50 mg/dL

    Diabetic goal 3 to < 7%
  28. INR
    • 0.9-1.2 seconds
    • 2.0-3.0 (A-fib)
    • 2.5-3.5 (Mechanical valve)
  29. Lactate
    0.5-2.2 mmol/L
  30. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
    11-12.5 seconds
  31. LDL
    < 130 MG Dl

    For high-risk or exisitng CAD, CVD or diabetic: LDL < 70 mg/dL
  32. Lithium (Lithobid)
    adjusted to maintain a serum lithium level of 1.0 - 1.5 mEq/L, particularly in acute mania
  33. Magnesium
    1.3-2.1 mEq/L
  34. Osmolarity, Blood
    The normal range is 285-295 mOsm/kg

    Extremely high blood osmolarity, e.g. 330 mOsm, indicates severe depletion of the circulating blood volume leading to at risk for acute kidney injury and renal failure.
  35. Phosphorus
    3-4.5 mg/dL
  36. Platelet count
    150,000 - 400,000/mm3

    • Decreased levels: bone marrow suppression, autoimmune disease, hypersplenism.
    • Increased levels: polycythemia vera or malignancy.
  37. Potassium
    3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L

    • Decreased values indicate possible:
    • Vomiting
    • Gastric suctioning
    • Diarrhea
    • Drainage from intestinal fistulas
  38. Protein
    6.4-8.3 g/dL
  39. Prothrombin time (pro time, PT)
    11 - 12.5 seconds

    The liver is the main site of all proteins involved in coagulation. Therefore, severe acute or chronic liver damage leads to a prolonged PT secondary to impaired synthesis of clotting factors.
  40. RBC
    • Females: 4.2 - 5.4 million/μL
    • Males:     4.7 - 6.1 million/μL

    4.5-5.0 million

    • Decreased levels: anemia or hemorrhage
    • Increased levels: chronis hypoxia or polycythemia vera

    Iggy7p865
  41. Serum amylase
    25-120 U/L

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Acute pancreatitis
  42. Serum lipase
    0-160 U/L

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Acute pancreatitis
  43. Sodium (Na+)
    • 91+ : 132-146 mEq/L
    • <= 90: 135-145 mEq/L

    • Decreased values indicate possible:
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Headache
    • apprehension
    • lethargy
    • muscle twitching
    • convulsions
    • fingerprinting of skin

    • Increased values indicate possible:
    • Dehydration (along w/ inc BUN)
  44. theophylline
    a xanthine-derivative bronchodilator

    therapeutic range 10–20 mcg/mL

    toxicity occurs with levels over 20 mcg/mL;
  45. Transfussion Indication?
    Hemoglobin > 10 g/dL -- transfusion is rarely indicated.

    Hemoglobin 6-10 g/dL -- indications for transfusion should be based on the patient's risk of inadequate oxygenation from ongoing bleeding and/or high-risk factors.

    Hemoglobin < 6 g/dL -- transfusion is almost always indicated.

    Per American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Blood Component Therapy.
  46. Triglycerides
    30-150 mg/dL

    < 135 mg/dL women, 150 mg/dL men
  47. T3 triiodothyronine
    serum: 70-205 ng/dL
  48. T4 thyroxine
    serum 4-12 mcg/dL
  49. Trop
    <0.3 ng/mL
  50. TSH
    0.3-5.0 µIU/mL
  51. Uric Acid
    3.5-7.5 mg/dL
  52. warfarin (Coumadin)
    optimal dose of Coumadin prolongs the PT and maintains the INR at 2 to 3
  53. WBC
    • 4000- 10,000/mm3
    • Neutrophils (segs) 55-70% 62/100
    •                   (bands)             5/100
    • "Left shift" more bands (immature) => sepsis: bacteria & fungi
    • Lymphocytes 20-40%: cell mediated immunity
    • Monocytes 2-8%: macrophages
    • Eosinophils 1-4%: parasites
    • Basophils 0.5 - 1%: histamines

    • Decreased levels: prolonged infection or bone marrow suppression.
    • Increased levels: infection, inflammation, autoimmune disorders or leukemia.

    Iggy7p865
  54. Lecithin–sphingomyelin ratio
    An L–S ratio of 2 or more indicates fetal lung maturity and a relatively low risk of infant respiratory distress syndrome, and an L/S ratio of less than 1.5 is associated with a high risk of infant respiratory distress syndrome.
  55. Xylose absorption
    • 5-g dose in 2 hr; >20 mg/dL or >1.3 mmol/L
    • 25-g dose in 2 hr: >25 mg/dL or >1.7 mmol/L

    • Decreased values in blood and urine indicate possible:
    • Malabsorption in the small intestine

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