Animal Development

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Author:
yourmomhaslice
ID:
208302
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Animal Development
Updated:
2013-04-08 11:44:59
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Exam biology
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This will be on the third exam. Don't fuck it up
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  1. Steps in animal development
    •Fertilization - fusion of the nuclei of sperm and egg

    •Cleavage- rapid cell division. transforms zygote into multicellular blastula , or blastblastocytes in mammals

    •Gastrulation-cells on outside of young embryo move to the interior of embryo (results in mesoderm, endoderm, ectoderm

    •Organogenesis- occurs after gastrulation in vertebrates where major organs develop from the 3 tissue types
  2. •Fertilization

    •Cleavage

    •Gastrulation

    •Organogenesis
    Steps in animal Development
  3. 3 main structures in sperm
    • Head
    • midpiece and tail
  4. Head midpiece and tail
    3 main structures in sperm
  5. Head of sperm
    –contains nucleus and acrosome (enzyme filled structure)
  6. –contains nucleus and acrosome (enzyme filled structure)
    Head of sperm
  7. midpiece in sperm
    packed with mitochondria for energy
  8. packed with mitochondria for energy
    Midpiece in sperm
  9. Tail in sperm
    flagellum for motility (flagellum, microtubules)
  10. flagellum for motility
    Tail in sperm
  11. Egg structure and function
    • Has:
    • Nucleus
    • Yolk
    • Cortical Granules
    • Vitelline envelope
    • Jelly Layer
  12. Yolk
    nutrition source for egg-laying species
  13. nutrition source for egg-laying species
    Yolk
  14. Cortical granules
    •small vesicles filled with enzymes activated during fertilization (these enzymes are what prevent polyspermy)
  15. Small vesicles filled with enzymes activated during fertilization (These enzymes are what prevent polyspermy)
    Cortical Granules
  16. Vitelline envelope
    • sheet of glycoproteins surrounding egg
    • (called zona pellucida in humans)
  17. sheet of glycoproteins surrounding egg(called zona pellucida in humans) passes oxygen to chick embryo
    Vitelline envelope
  18. Acrosomal reaction
    • Part of fertilization used to digest jelly layer of egg so the sperm can get through.
    • "needed to get through jelly layer or glycoproteins release of enzymes that digest jelly layer
  19. Part of fertilization used to digest jelly layer of egg so the sperm can get through. "needed to get through jelly layer or glycoproteins release of enzymes that digest jelly layer
    Acrosomal reaction
  20. What happens during fertilization
    • Sperm digests jelly layer.
    • sperm binds to vitelline envelope and cuts a hole in it
    • Sperm enters egg and the nucleus of the egg and sperm will bind
  21. Polyspermy
    fertilization of egg by more than one sperm
  22. fertilization of egg by more than one sperm
    polyspermy
  23. What happens to prevent polyspermy in aquatic animals?
    –vitelline envelope swells and forms fertilization envelope (creates physical barrier)
  24. Fertilization envelope
    • physical barrier created to prevent polyspermy in aquatic animals.
  25. physical barrier created to prevent polyspermy in aquatic animals.
    Fertilization envelope
  26. Cleavage
    • •rapid cell divisions after fertilization
    • –creates many small cells (blastomeres)
    • without overall growth.
  27. •rapid cell divisions after fertilization–creates many small cells (blastomeres)without overall growth.
    Cleavage
  28. Blastomeres
    the small cells created during cleavage / cell division
  29. the small cells created during cleavage / cell division
    Blastomeres
  30. Morula
    • solid ball of cells
  31. Solid ball of cells
    Morula
  32. Blastula
    • •hollow ball of cells with blastocoel
    • (fluid-filled center)
  33. •hollow ball of cells with blastocoel (fluid-filled center)
    Blastula
  34. blastocoel
    It's the fluid filled center in blastula
  35. It's the fluid filled center in blastula
    Blastocoel
  36. CYTOPLASMIC
    DETERMINANTS
    • Signals in the egg cytoplasm that determine the
    • fate (what type of cell they'll be) of specific blastomeres.
  37. Signals in the egg cytoplasm that determine the fate (what type of cell they'll be) of specific blastomeres
    Cytoplasmic determinants
  38. Gastrulation
    • •Movements that rearrange cells into a gastrula
    • •Forms embryonic tissue layers
    • –ectoderm,mesoderm, endoderm
    • •Forms gut
  39. •Movements that rearrange cells into a gastrula•Forms embryonic tissue layers–ectoderm,mesoderm, endoderm
    forms gut
    Gastrulation
  40. Gastrula
    An embryo at the stage following the blastula, consisting of a hollow, two-layered sac of ectoderm and endoderm
  41. An embryo at the stage following the blastula, consisting of a hollow, two-layered sac of ectoderm and endoderm
    Gastrula
  42. Ectoderm
    • –outer layer of skin
    • nervous system (brain and such)
  43. –outer layer of skin nervous system (brain and such
    Ectoderm
  44. Mesoderm
    • –muscle
    • –most internal organs
    • –connective tissues
  45. –muscle–most internal organs–connective tissues
    Mesoderm
  46. Endoderm
    • –most epithelial lining
    • –some organs
    • lines the inside of shit and is the liver
  47. Organogenesis
    •Tissue and organ formation after gastrulation

    • Cells become differentiated
    • (specialized)
  48. Notochord
    •forms from dorsal mesoderm

    –rod-like structure along length of body

    –present in chordates
  49. •forms from dorsal mesoderm–rod-like structure along length of body–present in chordates
    Notochord
  50. Neural tube
    •forms from fold of ectoderm

    –signals come from notochord

    –will become brain and spinal cord
  51. •forms from fold of ectoderm–signals come from notochord–will become brain and spinal cord
    Neural tube
  52. Somites
    –blocks of tissue formed from mesoderm

    –both sides of the neural tube along length of body.
  53. –blocks of tissue formed from mesoderm–both sides of the neural tube along length of body.
    somites
  54. Somite cells become several different tissues
    based on location within somite.
  55. Somite determination
    •Somite cells differentiate in response to signals from nearby tissues•Signals diffuse from notochord, neural tube, nearby ectoderm and mesoderm
  56. Study this, kay?
  57. andddd, study!

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