Nutrition test #2
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What are the 5 stages of life that an animal may go through that will have varied nutitionally requirements ?
What are the goals of preventative nutritional management ?
- Optimum growth
- Disease prevention
How do you change diets from one lifestage to another ?
very slowly. done over a period of 5 - 10 days
Why is one of the most critical nutritianally periods for a puppy/kitten immediately after theyre born ?
Because it needs to absorb colostrum (first milk) within first 24 hours. needs to absorb passive immunity from mom
What are factors an owner should conisder before breeding?
- Want bitch/queen in optimal health before
- optimal weight
What are the 3 main changes in nutritional needs of a pregnant animal ?
- Increased requirement of certain nutrients: support growth of fetuses
- Increased amount of food with fetal growth
- Types of feeding- frequent small daily meal, or free choice feeding
What are the 3 different feeding methods and which one is preferred ?
- 1. Amount restricted / portion controlled - feeding method of choice. Only allowed a specific amount of food, depends on energy requirements
- 2. Time restricted / time controlled -only allowed specific amount of time to eat
- 3. Free choice feeding - unlimited food available always
What kind of animal would display agression around its food ?
Subordinate animals often display aggressive behaviour about the food then threatened
What kind of diet are cats designed for ?
Evolved from their ancestors as strict carnivores. they have some specific nutritional requirements
What can over consumption of energy in a growing animal lead to ?
Can lead to developmental bone disorders
Should you rotate foods and flavours for your pet ?
- NO - rotating of foods and flavours will often lead to finicky feeding behaviours
- May even upset the weight homeostasis..change in diet upsets GI tract
List 5 factors that affect how we choose a diet for an animal?
- 1. Genetics - species, breed
- 2. Anatomical differences
- 3. Life stage - growth, maintenance
- 4. Environment - indoors, vs outdoors
- 5. Health status - disease vs healthy
- 6. Stress
What are the feeding behaviours for domestic dogs ?
- Domestic dogs are now omnivores. they are pack animals, hunted in packs so there may be some competition
- they gorge and horde - ancestors
what are the feeding behaviours for domestic cats ?
They need specific nutrients.. preformed vit. A, specific amino acids (taurine), niacin and aracionic acid, increased protein requirements ( 2x more than domestic dog) Have high metabolism and break down protein
What do you need to know before you can manage a disease through nutrition ?
- What organ is involved?
- What is the function of the organ involved ? - how does it work, purpose
- How can the animal be fed to decrease the need for that function
What are some types of diseases/ conditions in which dietary managment may help ?
- skin disease
- skeletal disease
- gastrointestinal disease
- food hypersensitivity
- renal disease
- cardiac disease
- Diabetes mellitus
What needs to be done before any diet change that may be related to a disease/condition ?
Most diseases can only be managed by nutrition. NOT CURED
- A complete PE by the vet.
- Many disease conditions may be masked by other underlying conditions, therefore the vet must rule out the reason for the condition
What is obesity ?
- an increase in body weight beyond the limitation of skeletal and physical requirements, as the result of excessive accumulation of body fat.
- Animals who are 15 -20% over their ideal body weight are considered obese
What are some predisposing factors to obesity ?
- Reproductive status
- Living environmetn and type of lifestyle
- Presence of hormonal abnormalities
- Voluntary activity levels
- Diet composition and palatability
- Genetic predisposition
What are the steps for Body condition scoring ?
Graded according to a score.. either a 5 pt. ( 3 is ideal) 7 or 9 pt. ( 5 is ideal)
- Step 1 : do a rib check
- Step 2: stand over the animal and assess the animal from a top view
- Step 3: stand to the side of the dog and asses the animal from a side view
Why use a reducing/weight control diet instead of teh animals regular diet when trying to reduce an overweight pet ?
- FIRST Ensure that they are not overfeeding the regular diet, as decreasing the amount may be enough to take off the extra weight
- Decreasing the amount of food they are already on will decrease the amounts of other nutrients
How can we ensure owner compliance in a weight loss program ?
- Must work together.
- Never assume that the owner recognizes that their pet is overweight
- Explain how much weight needs to be lost and HOW LONG it will take
- Go over which diet has been recommended by the bet, and how much food, including treats
- Provide motivation
- Follow up phone calls
- Re assess within 1-2 months
What are some signs and symptoms of a cat w. FLUTD ?
- Blood in urine
- Painful urination - crying in litterbox
- Frequent urinations
- Urination in inappropriate places
- Excessive licking of urogenital areas
What are some predisposing factors of FLUTD ?
- Age 1-6yrs most common
- Gender - males
- Diet - mineral levels
- Activity levels
What dietary and feeding factors should be looked at when dealin with FLUTD ?
- pH and mineral levels : magnesium, phosphorus and calc. levels, urine pH-crystals are more common in acidic pH
- meal feeding vs free choice
- water intake
what is the proper medical management for a cat with FLUTD
- If blocked - emergency treatment by vet
- If struvite crystals - can be dissolved using appropriate diet
- If calcium oxalate - may need surgical removal
- Need to be on a maintenance diet after treatment
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