Nutrition test #2

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Nutrition test #2
2013-03-19 19:11:18
Nutritional management disease

Nutrition test number 2
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  1. What are the 5 stages of life that an animal may go through that will have varied nutitionally requirements ?
    • Growth
    • Maintenance
    • Gestation/lactation
    • Work/stress
    • Senior/geriatric
  2. What are the goals of preventative nutritional management ?
    • Optimum growth
    • Disease prevention
    • Longevity
  3. How do you change diets from one lifestage to another ?
    very slowly.  done over a period of 5 - 10 days
  4. Why is one of the most critical nutritianally periods for a puppy/kitten immediately after theyre born ?
    Because it needs to absorb colostrum (first milk) within first 24 hours.  needs to absorb passive immunity from mom
  5. What are factors an owner should conisder before breeding?
    • Want bitch/queen in optimal health before
    • optimal weight
  6. What are the 3 main changes in nutritional needs of a pregnant animal ?
    • Increased requirement of certain nutrients: support growth of fetuses
    • Increased amount of food with fetal growth
    • Types of feeding- frequent small daily meal, or free choice feeding
  7. What are the 3 different feeding methods and which one is preferred ?
    • 1. Amount restricted / portion controlled - feeding method of choice. Only allowed a specific amount of food, depends on energy requirements
    • 2. Time restricted / time controlled -only allowed specific amount of time to eat
    • 3. Free choice feeding - unlimited food available always
  8. What kind of animal would display agression around its food ?
    Subordinate animals often display aggressive behaviour about the food then threatened
  9. What kind of diet are cats designed for ?
    Evolved from their ancestors as strict carnivores. they have some specific nutritional requirements
  10. What can over consumption of energy in a growing animal lead to ?
     Can lead to developmental bone disorders
  11. Should you rotate foods and flavours for your pet ?
    • NO - rotating of foods and flavours will often lead to finicky feeding behaviours
    • May even upset the weight homeostasis..change in diet upsets GI tract
  12. List 5 factors that affect how we choose a diet for an animal?
    • 1. Genetics - species, breed
    • 2. Anatomical differences
    • 3. Life stage - growth, maintenance
    • 4. Environment - indoors, vs outdoors
    • 5. Health status - disease vs healthy
    • 6. Stress
  13. What are the feeding behaviours for domestic dogs ?
    • Domestic dogs are now omnivores.  they are pack animals, hunted in packs so there may be some competition
    • they gorge and horde - ancestors
  14. what are the feeding behaviours for domestic cats ?
    They need specific nutrients.. preformed vit. A, specific amino acids (taurine), niacin and aracionic acid, increased protein requirements ( 2x more than domestic dog)  Have high metabolism and break down protein
  15. What do you need to know before you can manage a disease through nutrition ?
    • What organ is involved?
    • What is the function of the organ involved ? - how does it work, purpose
    • How can the animal be fed to decrease the need for that function
  16. What are some types of diseases/ conditions in which dietary managment may help ?
    • skin disease
    • skeletal disease
    • gastrointestinal disease
    • food hypersensitivity
    • cancer
    • renal disease
    • cardiac disease
    • obesity
    • FLUTD
    • Diabetes mellitus
  17. What needs to be done before any diet change that may be related to a disease/condition ?
    • A complete PE by the vet.
    • Many disease conditions may be masked by other underlying conditions, therefore the vet must rule out the reason for the condition

    Most diseases can only be managed by nutrition. NOT CURED
  18. What is obesity ?
    • an increase in body weight beyond the limitation of skeletal and physical requirements, as the result of excessive accumulation of body fat.
    • Animals who are 15 -20% over their ideal body weight are considered obese
  19. What are some predisposing factors to obesity ?
    • Reproductive status
    • Living environmetn and type of lifestyle
    • Age
    • Sex
    • Presence of hormonal abnormalities
    • Voluntary activity levels
    • Diet composition and palatability
    • Genetic predisposition
  20. What are the steps for Body condition scoring ?
    • Step 1 : do a rib check
    • Step 2: stand over the animal and assess the animal from a top view
    • Step 3: stand to the side of the dog and asses the animal from a side view

    Graded according to a score.. either a 5 pt. ( 3 is ideal) 7 or 9 pt. ( 5 is ideal)
  21. Why use a reducing/weight control diet instead of teh animals regular diet when trying to reduce an overweight pet ?
    • FIRST Ensure that they are not overfeeding the regular diet, as decreasing the amount may be enough to take off the extra weight
    • Decreasing the amount of food they are already on will decrease the amounts of other nutrients
  22. How can we ensure owner compliance in a weight loss program ?
    • Must work together.
    • Never assume that the owner recognizes that their pet is overweight
    • Explain how much weight needs to be lost and HOW LONG it will take
    • Go over which diet has been recommended by the bet, and how much food, including treats
    • Provide motivation
    • Follow up phone calls
    • Re assess within 1-2 months
  23. What are some signs and symptoms of a cat w. FLUTD ?
    • Blood in urine
    • Painful urination - crying in litterbox
    • Frequent urinations
    • Urination in inappropriate places
    • Excessive licking of urogenital areas
    • Emergency
  24. What are some predisposing factors of FLUTD ?
    • Age 1-6yrs most common
    • Gender - males
    • Diet - mineral levels
    • Activity levels
    • Stress
  25. What dietary and feeding factors should be looked at when dealin with FLUTD ?
    • pH and mineral levels : magnesium, phosphorus and calc. levels, urine pH-crystals are more common in acidic pH
    • meal feeding vs free choice
    • water intake
  26. what is the proper medical management for a cat with FLUTD
    • If blocked - emergency treatment by vet
    • If struvite crystals - can be dissolved using appropriate diet
    • If calcium oxalate - may need surgical removal
    • Need to be on a maintenance diet after treatment