medicine questions.txt

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medicine questions.txt
2013-03-19 17:59:29

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  1. how do you diagnose metabolic syndrome
    3 or more of the risk factors: 1. waist circumfrence 2. fasting BS 3. decreaed HDL 4. BP 5. elevated TG
  2. what are the 2 major bacteria that causes subacute bacterial endocarditis
    staph and alpha hemolytic strep (strep viridians and strep pneumo)
  3. PSA levels above what is worrisome for metastatic prostate ca
  4. how does metformin work
    increasing insulin sensitivity
  5. what HLA is associated with RA
  6. what nerve is most affected in RA
    median nerve
  7. what measuers direct pathway? Indirect pathway in caogulation?
    PT and INR (indirect measurement); PTT
  8. what vaccines to avoid in egg allergies
    "mmr, rabies, influenza, yellow fever"
  9. what vaccine do you give to asplenic patients
    meningococcal vaccine and Hib vaccine (don't give pneumococcal because its encapsulated)
  10. what should ldl goal be for a diabetic
    < 100
  11. what type of nystagmus do you see in lithium takers
    downbeat nystagmus
  12. is uveitis in JIA patients more common in males or females
  13. what retrobulbar anesthetic has highest likelihood of respiratory arrest
  14. what surgeries require bacterial ppx for endocarditis in prostethic haert valve
    "NLD system repair, sinus surgery, orbital trauma"
  15. whats the most common thyroid cancer? Most malignant?
    papillary carcinoma; anaplastic carcinoma
  16. what ocular structures are most sensitive to radiation? What's the latency between exposure and disease?
    "lens > cornea > retina > optic nerve; 2-3 years before cataract, radiation retinopathy, 1 year before corneal changes"
  17. how much do you creased risk of retinopathy by lowering A1C by 1 point
  18. what antihypertensive is CI in pregnancy
  19. "with an asymtopatic carotid bruit, what is the chance for stroke? MI?"
    2%; 4%
  20. what syndrome can cause both venous AND arteriole thrombosis
    antiphospholipid syndrome
  21. what hla with behcets
  22. what do you do for someone with high risk of clots on coumadin before blepharoplasty
    "stop coumadin 5 days prior, start heparin when INR <2.0, stop heparin 12 hrs before surgery until 24 hours after surgery, start coumadin right after surgery"
  23. when should you stop coumadin and aspirin before surgery
    4 days; 5 days
  24. what is the incidence of chlamydia in someone with gonoccocal urethritis
  25. what antibiotic is used to prevent PCP in HIV
  26. what patients likely has allergy with latex
    "spina bifida patients, and patienst with allergies to BACK-P foods (bananas, avocados, chestnus, kiwis, passionfruit)"
  27. what type of bacteria is cdiff
    gram positive anaerobe
  28. what is the mechanism of graves disease
    antibodies to TSH receptors
  29. what is the most comon way to get toxo
    eating undercooked meat
  30. what treatment for TB doesnÂ’t affect eyes
  31. what is the regimen for diabetics on morning of cat surgery
    stop oral hypoglycemics and short acting insulin; take half dose of intermediate and long acting insulin
  32. what do you need for diagnosis of HIV
    "ELISA must be positive twice, then confirmed by western blot"
  33. how do you calculate relative risk
    taking the incidence in the non-treated arm divided by incidence in treated arm
  34. when should you get CEA for carotid disease
    when stenosis > 70% and surgeon has a perioperative morbidity and mortaility rate < 6%
  35. what drug likely to cause angle closure glaucoma
  36. what are side effects of SSRI
    "angle closure glaucoma due to anticholinergic side effects, platelet dysfunction causing gi bleed, "
  37. "most likley cause of meningitis in patients living in close quarters (college, army)"
    neisseria meningitidies
  38. what medication reduces the risk of chronic hep C in a patient with acute hep C
    interferon alpha; also cotreat with ribavarin
  39. what is cidofovir used for and what is its side effects
    CMV retinitis; SE is nephrotoxicity and 37% get secdonary ant uveitis
  40. what conditions can give false positive VDRL/RPR
    "SLE, lyme, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, liver disease, pregnancy"
  41. how shouyld you treat someone with syphillic ant uveittis
    tx as if they have neurosyphillis: IV pcn g for 10-14 days
  42. what is the primary limiting SE that can lead to mortailtiy of AZT
    "bone marrow supressoin; other SE include hepatotoxicity, cardiomyopathy, seizures"
  43. how does ITP present and how do you treat
    "acute disease in children where antibodies to platelets are produced after viral infection -> gingival bleeding and petechia -> tx with steroids, danazol, rituximab"
  44. what is cause of TTP
    diffuse intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis
  45. what is best test for heparin therapy
  46. what cancer is increasing most in incidence
  47. what is the most common cause of cardiopulmonary arrest in kids
    respiratory blockage- check the airway!
  48. how do you calculate accuracy of a test
    TP + TN/ (total number of people tested)
  49. what medications can you stop before surgery
    "thyroid medication (has long half life), diuretics (so patient deosnt have to pee)"
  50. what are top 3 leading cause of death
    1. cardiac 2. cancer 3. stroke
  51. how do you diagnose AIDS
    "CD4 < 200 or AIDS defining illness (kaposi, PCP)"
  52. what percentrage of patietns with PCN allergy have cross allergy to cephalosporins
  53. what is somogyi phenomenon
    institution of medications causes hypoglycemia which subsequently leads to rebound hyperglycemia
  54. what are signs of neuroleptic malignant syndrome
    extreme muscle rigidity and hyperthermia
  55. what is eye SE of ssri?
    "angle closure glaucoma due to anticholinergic side effects, platelet dysfunction causing gi bleed, pts feel well enough to commit suicide now"
  56. what is SE of MAOI
    hypertensive crisis after ingesting tyramine (wine and cheese)
  57. what are ocular findings of takayasu arteritis
    mid peripheral CWS and AV anastomoses
  58. how do fluoroquinolones work
    inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase II -> inhibits DNA transcription and replication
  59. most common cancer cause of death in women > 40
    "lung (used to be breast, but advances have made it better)"
  60. what are early signs of malignant hyperthermia
    tachycardia and icnrease in end tidal CO2
  61. what is most common type of cancer
  62. which medication in tx of cmv retinitis does NOT have bonie marrow suppression