Card Set Information
how do you diagnose metabolic syndrome
3 or more of the risk factors: 1. waist circumfrence 2. fasting BS 3. decreaed HDL 4. BP 5. elevated TG
what are the 2 major bacteria that causes subacute bacterial endocarditis
staph and alpha hemolytic strep (strep viridians and strep pneumo)
PSA levels above what is worrisome for metastatic prostate ca
how does metformin work
increasing insulin sensitivity
what HLA is associated with RA
what nerve is most affected in RA
what measuers direct pathway? Indirect pathway in caogulation?
PT and INR (indirect measurement); PTT
what vaccines to avoid in egg allergies
"mmr, rabies, influenza, yellow fever"
what vaccine do you give to asplenic patients
meningococcal vaccine and Hib vaccine (don't give pneumococcal because its encapsulated)
what should ldl goal be for a diabetic
what type of nystagmus do you see in lithium takers
is uveitis in JIA patients more common in males or females
what retrobulbar anesthetic has highest likelihood of respiratory arrest
what surgeries require bacterial ppx for endocarditis in prostethic haert valve
"NLD system repair, sinus surgery, orbital trauma"
whats the most common thyroid cancer? Most malignant?
papillary carcinoma; anaplastic carcinoma
what ocular structures are most sensitive to radiation? What's the latency between exposure and disease?
"lens > cornea > retina > optic nerve; 2-3 years before cataract, radiation retinopathy, 1 year before corneal changes"
how much do you creased risk of retinopathy by lowering A1C by 1 point
what antihypertensive is CI in pregnancy
"with an asymtopatic carotid bruit, what is the chance for stroke? MI?"
what syndrome can cause both venous AND arteriole thrombosis
what hla with behcets
what do you do for someone with high risk of clots on coumadin before blepharoplasty
"stop coumadin 5 days prior, start heparin when INR <2.0, stop heparin 12 hrs before surgery until 24 hours after surgery, start coumadin right after surgery"
when should you stop coumadin and aspirin before surgery
4 days; 5 days
what is the incidence of chlamydia in someone with gonoccocal urethritis
what antibiotic is used to prevent PCP in HIV
what patients likely has allergy with latex
"spina bifida patients, and patienst with allergies to BACK-P foods (bananas, avocados, chestnus, kiwis, passionfruit)"
what type of bacteria is cdiff
gram positive anaerobe
what is the mechanism of graves disease
antibodies to TSH receptors
what is the most comon way to get toxo
eating undercooked meat
what treatment for TB doesnt affect eyes
what is the regimen for diabetics on morning of cat surgery
stop oral hypoglycemics and short acting insulin; take half dose of intermediate and long acting insulin
what do you need for diagnosis of HIV
"ELISA must be positive twice, then confirmed by western blot"
how do you calculate relative risk
taking the incidence in the non-treated arm divided by incidence in treated arm
when should you get CEA for carotid disease
when stenosis > 70% and surgeon has a perioperative morbidity and mortaility rate < 6%
what drug likely to cause angle closure glaucoma
what are side effects of SSRI
"angle closure glaucoma due to anticholinergic side effects, platelet dysfunction causing gi bleed, "
"most likley cause of meningitis in patients living in close quarters (college, army)"
what medication reduces the risk of chronic hep C in a patient with acute hep C
interferon alpha; also cotreat with ribavarin
what is cidofovir used for and what is its side effects
CMV retinitis; SE is nephrotoxicity and 37% get secdonary ant uveitis
what conditions can give false positive VDRL/RPR
"SLE, lyme, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, liver disease, pregnancy"
how shouyld you treat someone with syphillic ant uveittis
tx as if they have neurosyphillis: IV pcn g for 10-14 days
what is the primary limiting SE that can lead to mortailtiy of AZT
"bone marrow supressoin; other SE include hepatotoxicity, cardiomyopathy, seizures"
how does ITP present and how do you treat
"acute disease in children where antibodies to platelets are produced after viral infection -> gingival bleeding and petechia -> tx with steroids, danazol, rituximab"
what is cause of TTP
diffuse intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis
what is best test for heparin therapy
what cancer is increasing most in incidence
what is the most common cause of cardiopulmonary arrest in kids
respiratory blockage- check the airway!
how do you calculate accuracy of a test
TP + TN/ (total number of people tested)
what medications can you stop before surgery
"thyroid medication (has long half life), diuretics (so patient deosnt have to pee)"
what are top 3 leading cause of death
1. cardiac 2. cancer 3. stroke
how do you diagnose AIDS
"CD4 < 200 or AIDS defining illness (kaposi, PCP)"
what percentrage of patietns with PCN allergy have cross allergy to cephalosporins
what is somogyi phenomenon
institution of medications causes hypoglycemia which subsequently leads to rebound hyperglycemia
what are signs of neuroleptic malignant syndrome
extreme muscle rigidity and hyperthermia
what is eye SE of ssri?
"angle closure glaucoma due to anticholinergic side effects, platelet dysfunction causing gi bleed, pts feel well enough to commit suicide now"
what is SE of MAOI
hypertensive crisis after ingesting tyramine (wine and cheese)
what are ocular findings of takayasu arteritis
mid peripheral CWS and AV anastomoses
how do fluoroquinolones work
inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase II -> inhibits DNA transcription and replication
most common cancer cause of death in women > 40
"lung (used to be breast, but advances have made it better)"
what are early signs of malignant hyperthermia
tachycardia and icnrease in end tidal CO2
what is most common type of cancer
which medication in tx of cmv retinitis does NOT have bonie marrow suppression