Exam 3 Adolescent Psych

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Exam 3 Adolescent Psych
2013-03-19 22:02:16
Adolescent Psych

Chapter 5, 10, 11
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  1. peer groups
    groups of individuals of approximately the same age
  2. age grading
    the process of grouping individuals within social institutions on the basis of age
  3. baby boom
    the period following World War II, during which the number of infants born was extremely large
  4. particularistic norms
    guidelines for behavior that vary from one individual to another, more commonly found in less industrialized societies
  5. universalistic norms
    guidelines for behavior that apply to all members of a community; more common in industrialized societies
  6. sex clevage
    the separation of boys and girls into different cliques, common during late childhood and early adolescence
  7. cliques
    small, tightly knit groups of between 2 to 12 friends, generally of the same sex and age
  8. crowds
    large, loosely organized groups of young people, composed of several cliques and typically organized around a common shared activity
  9. participant observation
    a research technique in which the researcher "infiltrates" a group of individuals in order to study their behavior and realtionships
  10. ethnography
    a type of research in which individuals are observed in their natural settings
  11. reference groups
    a group against which an individual compares him- or herself
  12. gangs
    organized peer groups of antisocial individuals
  13. iatrogenic effects
    unintended adverse consequences of a treatment or intervention
  14. sociometric popularity
    how well-like an individual is
  15. perceived popularity
    how much status or prestige an individual has
  16. instrumental aggression
    aggressive behavior that is deliberate and planner
  17. reactive aggression
    aggressive behavior that is unplanned and impulsive
  18. relational aggression
    acts intended to harm another through the manipulation of his or her relationships with others, as malicious gossip
  19. hostile attribution bias
    the tendency to interpret ambiguous interactions with others as deliberately hostile
  20. cyberbullying
    bullying that occurs over the Internet or via cell phones
  21. intimacy
    the psycho-social domain concerning the formation, maintenance, and termination of close relationships
  22. platonic relationships
    nonsexual relationships with individuals who might otherwise be romantic partners
  23. attatchment
    the strong affectional bond that develops between an infant and a caregiver
  24. secure attatchment
    a healthy attachment between infant and caregiver, characterized by trust
  25. anxious-avoidant attatchment
    an insecure attachment between infant and caregiver, characterized by indifference on the part of the infant toward the caregiver
  26. anxious-resistant attachment
    an insecure attachment between infant and caregiver, characterized by distress at separation and anger at reunion
  27. internal working model
    the implicit model of interpersonal relationships that an individual employs throughout life, believed to be shaped by early attachment experiences
  28. rejection sensitivity
    heightened vulnerability to being rejected by others
  29. Adult Attachment Interview
    a structural interview used to assess an individuals past attachment history and "internal working model" of relationships
  30. co-runimation
    excessive talking with another about problems
  31. social support
    the extent to which an individual receives emotional or instrumental assistance from his or her social network
  32. sexual-minority youth
    gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth
  33. sexual socialization
    the process through which adolescents are exposed to and educated about sexuality
  34. restrictive societies
    societies in which adolescents are pressure to refrain from sexual activity until they have married or undergone a formal rite of passage into adulthood
  35. semi-restrcitive societies
    societies in which pressures against adolescents sexual activity exist but are not vigilantly enforced
  36. permissive societies
    societies in which sexual activity during childhood and adolescents is not greatly restrained
  37. autoerotic behavior
    sexual behavior that is experienced alone, such as masturbation or sexual fantasizing
  38. testosterone
    one of the sex hormones secreted by the gonads, found in both sexes but in higher levels among males than females
  39. risk factors
    factors that increase the likelihood of some behavior or condition
  40. sexual orientation
    an individual's orientation toward same- or other-sex partners
  41. sex-role behavior
    behavior that is consistent with prevailing expectations for how individuals of a given sex are to behave
  42. gender identity
    the gender an individual identifies with
  43. date rape
    being forced by a date to have sex against one's will
  44. sexually transmitted disease (STD)
    any of a group of infections--including gonorrhea, herpes, chlamydia  and AIDS--passed on through sexual contract
  45. gonorrhea
    a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacterium
  46. chlamydia
    a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacterium
  47. herpes
    a sexually transmitted infection caused by a virus
  48. human papilomavirus
    one of several viruses that causes a sexually transmitted disease
  49. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
    a disease, caused by a virus transmitted by means of bodily fluids, that devastates the immune system
  50. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
    the virus associated with AIDS
  51. comprehensive sex education
    programs that not only provide information about contraception, STD's, and pregnancy but also teach adolescents how to refuse unwanted sex and avoid unintended sex, increase their motivation in engage in safe sex, and change perceptions about peer norms and attiudes
  52. abstinence-only sex education
    programs that encourage adolescents to avoid sexual activity but that do not provide information about safe sex