Medical Terminology Week 6

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dhsc19
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208430
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Medical Terminology Week 6
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2013-03-20 03:05:36
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Medical Terminology Week
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Medical Terminology Week 6
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  1. The two main structures of the Central Nervous System
    The brain and the spinal cord
  2. The PNS stands for ? and includes ?
    Peripheral Nervous System and includes the autonomic nervous system
  3. Origin of Terms:
    plexus
    braid, network
  4. Origin of Terms:
    radicle
    root
  5. Origin of Terms:
    synapse
    clasp, connection
  6. Anatomical Terms:
    How many pairs of cranial nerves?
    12 pairs of nerves
  7. Anatomical Terms:
    How many pairs of spinal nerves?
    31 pairs of nerves
  8. Anatomical Terms:
    nerve cell
    a funtioning unit of a neuron
  9. Anatomical Terms:
    axon
    single process that leads away from the cell body
  10. Anatomical Terms:
    cell body
    made of cytoplasm and has a nucleus
  11. Anatomical Terms:
    dendrite
    many branches that lead into the cell body, receives messages from previous neuron
  12. Anatomical Terms:
    effector
    causes an "effect" from the brain to peripheral organs
  13. Anatomical Terms:
    myelin sheath
    surrounds the axon, made of fats and protein
  14. Anatomical Terms:
    neurilemma, neurolemma
    holds myelin to the axon
  15. Anatomical Terms:
    receptor
    where senses from the environment originate
  16. Anatomical Terms:
    afferent neurons
    sends signals towards the brain
  17. Anatomical Terms:
    efferent neurons
    sends signals away from the brain
  18. Anatomical Terms:
    The "plexus of spinal nerves" contain these two sections.  What are they and what part of the body do they go to?
    • These two are part of what main plexus?
    • brachial plexus - nerves that travel to the arms
    • sacral plexus - nerves that travel to the legs
  19. Anatomical Terms:
    What are the two roots of spinal nerves and what direction do the signals go?
    • ventral root - where the efferent nerves go through
    • dorsal root - where the afferent nerves go through
  20. Anatomical Terms:
    synapse
    the point of "contact" between two neurons
  21. Anatomical Terms:
    nodes of ranvier
    The "pinched" areas on the axon where there is no myelin sheath
  22. Diagnostic Terms:
    Bell's Palsy
    disorder of the 7th cranial nerve (a facial nerve) of unknown cause.  It causes unilateral facial paralysis (half of face is paralyzed).
  23. Diagnostic Terms:
    causalgia
    post-traumatic pain from an injured nerve that causes a severe burning sensation
  24. Diagnostic Terms:
    Guillain-Barre syndrome
    known  as ascending flacid paralysis, starts of as a respiratory problem, then weakness in the feet and moves towards the trunk.
  25. Dianostic Terms:
    herniated nucleus pulposus, herniated intervertebral disk
    a rupture in the intervertebral disk that causes it to flatten and bulge out, pinching the nerve
  26. Diagnostic Terms:
    neurilemmoma, neurilemoma
    a tumor on the membrate covering the axon
  27. Diagnostic Terms:
    neuroma
    tumor of the nerve
  28. Diagnostic Terms:
    polyneuritis, polyneuropathy
    many nerves are inflamed due to vitamin B deficiency
  29. Diagnostic Terms:
    sciatic neuritis, sciatica
    neuritis caused by a herniated intervertebral disk (fixed by performing a neurectomy)
  30. Operative Terms:
    neurectomy
    removal of nerve
  31. Operative Terms:
    neuroanastomosis
    surgically reconnecting the nerves (end to end)
  32. Operative Terms:
    vagotomy
    to cut the vagus nerve to control stomach acid production
  33. Symptomatic Terms:
    aural vertigo
    dizziness caused by the inner ear
  34. Symptomatic Terms:
    paroxysmal pain
    sudden recurrent pain (shooting pain)
  35. Symptomatic Terms:
    trigeminal neuralgia, tic douloureux
    spasm of the 5th cranial nerve (facial nerve), also known as "brain freeze" from eating something very cold.
  36. Origin of Terms:
    gyrus
    convolution
  37. Origin of Terms:
    lamina
    thin plate
  38. Origin of Terms:
    paresis
    relaxation
  39. Origin of Terms:
    pons
    bridge
  40. Origin of Terms:
    spina
    thorn-like, spine
  41. Origin of Terms:
    thalmo
    chamber
  42. Origin of Terms:
    ventricle
    small cavity
  43. Anatomical Terms:
    brain also known as
    encephalon
  44. Anatomical Terms:
    the function of the cerebellum
    balance and coordination
  45. Anatomical Terms:
    cerebrum
    the largest part of the brain
  46. Anatomical Terms:
    corpus callosum
    connects both brain hemispheres together
  47. Anatomical Terms:
    Two parts of the brain stem you have to know and their main feature
    • medulla oblongata - the vital center
    • pons - the "bridge" of the brain stem
  48. Anatomical Terms:
    meninges and is its three layers
    membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.  The three layers are dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
  49. Anatomical Terms:
    ventricles
    chambers in the brain areas where cerebrospinal fluid is produced
  50. Anatomical Terms:
    spinal cord
    the part of the central nervous system other than the brain
  51. Diagnostic Terms:
    Alzheimer's disease
    begins to occur around 60 years of age, possible genetic in origin, causes memory loss
  52. Diagnostic Terms:
    anencephalia, anencephalus
    a fetus or brand new baby without a brain
  53. Diagnostic Terms:
    glioblastoma
    a very malignat, fast moving brain (intercranial) tumor
  54. Diagnostic Terms:
    medulloblastoma
    malignant tumor of the cerebellum
  55. Diagnostic Terms:
    metastatic tumor
    a cancer that originated elsewhere in the body that has spread to the brain
  56. Diagnostic Terms:
    primary brain tumor
    a tumor that original started in the brain
  57. Diagnostic Terms:
    cerebral palsy
    generally caused during birth, causes physical motor spasms
  58. Diagnostic Terms:
    cerebral aneurysm
    a cerebrovascular disease where the blood vessel had burst in the brain
  59. Diagnostic Terms:
    cerebral embolism
    a cerebrovascular disease where a clot has travelled to the brain and cut off the blood supply
  60. Diagnostic Terms:
    cerebral infarction
    a cerebrovascular disease where the brain tissue has died
  61. Diagnostic Terms:
    cerebral eschemia
    a cerebrovascular disease where there is bad circulation to the brain
  62. Diagnostic Terms:
    cerebrovascular accident, stroke
    also abreviated as CVA, the blood supply to the brain has been cut off
  63. Diagnostic Terms:
    transient ischemic attacks
    a cerebrovascular condition where there is a temporary cut off of blood supply to the brain
  64. Diagnostic Terms:
    chorea
    degenerative nerve disorder that causes bizzar involuntary movements
  65. Diagnostic Terms:
    encephalitis lethargica
    inflammation of the brain causing sleepiness (caused by a virus transmitted by a mosquito)
  66. Diagnostic Terms:
    encephalocele
    the skull has a protrusion poking the brain
  67. Diagnostic Terms:
    epilepsy
    a convulsive disorder
  68. Diagnostic Terms:
    hydrocephalus
    accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain because the ventricles are clogged and unable to drain.
  69. Diagnostic Terms:
    meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges
  70. Diagnostic Terms:
    meningocele
    a hernia of the meninges where it is protruding through a fissure in the skull
  71. Diagnostic Terms:
    microcephalus
    small brain
  72. Diagnostic Terms:
    multiple sclerosis (MS)
    degeneration of the myelin sheath
  73. Diagnostic Terms:
    Parkinson's Disease
    Occurs in the 50s to 60s - symptoms are tremors, monotone voice, and affects movement
  74. Diagnostic Terms:
    poliomyelitis
    commonly known as Polio, caused by a virus
  75. Diagnostic Terms:
    spina bifida
    birth defect caused by lack of folic acid, causing the spinal cord to protrude out of the vertabrae
  76. Diagnostic Terms:
    tabes dorsalis, locomotor ataxia
    syphylis of the nervous system
  77. Diagnostic Terms:
    Tourette Syndrome
    a condition that causes the person to make uncontrolable movements or verbal outbursts
  78. Operative Terms:
    carotid endarterectomy
    cleaning out the plaque from the carotid artery
  79. Operative Terms:
    cordectomy
    to remove the spinal cord, to bring person from rigid paralysis to flacid paralysis
  80. Operative Terms:
    laminectomy
    removing the lamina to get to the spinal cord, done for nuclear herniated pulposa
  81. Operative Terms:
    sterotaxy
    attaching platforms to a person's head that steady the surgical instruments and help make more precise brain surgery procedures
  82. Operative terms:
    surgical shunts for hydrocephalus
    a tubing installed in the head to help drain cerebrospinal fluid from the ventricles.
  83. Symptomatic Terms:
    analgesia
    to lose normal sense of pain
  84. Symptomatic Terms:
    aphasia
    difficulty talking or understanding words
  85. Symptomatic Terms:
    apraxia
    movements that are not purposeful
  86. Symptomatic Terms:
    ataxia
    poor coordination
  87. Symptomatic Terms:
    aura
    an awareness that a seizure is about to occur
  88. Symptomatic Terms:
    cerebrospinal otorrhea
    also known as "leaking roof", cerebrospinal fluid in the ear
  89. Symptomatic Terms:
    coma
    unconcious
  90. Symptomatic Terms:
    convulsion
    involuntary muscle contractions
  91. Symptomatic Terms:
    dyslexia
    trouble learning because words appear mixed up
  92. Symptomatic Terms:
    euphoria
    a sense of well being
  93. Symptomatic Terms:
    hemiplegia
    stroke induced half paralysis
  94. Symptomatic Terms:
    hyperesthesia
    over sensitivity
  95. Symptomatic Terms:
    nystagmus
    eyeballs are constantly moving
  96. Symptomatic Terms:
    paresthesia
    slight paralysis, with tingling or prickling feeling
  97. Symptomatic Terms:
    paraplegia
    paralyzed in the lower part of the body
  98. Symptomatic Terms:
    paresis
    partial paralysis
  99. Symptomatic Terms:
    radiculitis
    inflammation of the nerve root
  100. Symptomatic Terms:
    syncope
    fainting
  101. Symptomatic Terms:
    tic
    short involuntary contraction of muscle
  102. Special Procedures:
    lumbar puncture
    a procedure to draw cerebrospinal fluid for examination
  103. Neurological Examination Terms:
    Babinski's Reflex
    if you stroke the bottom of the foot of a baby, the toes should curl in.  If the big toe fans out, it means there is nerve damage
  104. Neurological Examination Terms:
    blink reflex
    to close your eyes when something is rapidly going towards it (like flinching)
  105. Neurological Examination Terms:
    Brudzinski's sign
    person lies down and moves their head towards their chest. if their legs draw up, it is a sign for meningitis
  106. Neurological Examination Terms:
    Kernig's Sign
    a person can bend leg, but will be unable to straighten them if they have meningitis
  107. Neurological Examination Terms:
    Romberg's Sign
    a test for ataxia.  a standing person will lose balance when they close their eyes
  108. Neurologic Studies:
    electroencephalography, electroencephalogram
    EEG
  109. Neurologic Studies:
    electronystagmography
    attaching electrodes to eyes to test for nystagmus
  110. analeptics
    a stimulant
  111. analgesia
    loss of pain
  112. anesthesia
    inability to feel
  113. anesthesiologist
    a medical doctor specializing in administering anesthesia for more major surgeries
  114. anesthetist
    a nurse specializing in administering anesthesia for minor procedures
  115. antiemetric drug
    an anti-vomit drug
  116. hyperventilation
    breathing in too much oxygen
  117. hypoxia
    not enough oxygen
  118. inhalation therapy
    breathing in O2 and CO2
  119. vasoconstrictors
    makes blood vessels constrict
  120. Method of Local Anesthesia:
    accupuncture analgesia
    the use of accupuncture to help relieve pain
  121. Method of Local Anesthesia:
    types of spinal anesthesia
    • caudal or sacral anesthesia
    • epidural block
  122. ANS
    autonomic nervous system
  123. ALS
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gherig's Disease)
  124. CBF
    cerebral blood flow
  125. CNS
    central nervous system
  126. CP
    cerebral palsy
  127. CSF
    cerebral spinal fluid
  128. CVA
    cerebrovascular accident
  129. EEG
    electroencephalogram
  130. KJ
    knee jerk
  131. LP
    lumbar puncture
  132. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  133. MS
    multiple sclerosis
  134. OBS
    organic brain syndrome - something is causing physical damage to the brain
  135. PEG
    pneumoencephalogram
  136. PET
    positron emission topography
  137. PNS
    peripheral nervous system
  138. TIA
    transient ischemic attack
  139. Radiology Terms:
    cerebral angiography
    pictures of blood vessels in the brain
  140. Radiology Terms:
    computed intracranial tomography
    CAT scan of the brain
  141. Radiology Terms:
    myelography, myelogram
    x-ray picture of the spinal cord
  142. Origin of Terms:
    cornea
    horny
  143. Origin of Terms:
    crystal
    clear ice
  144. Origin of Terms:
    cyclo
    circle
  145. Origin of Terms:
    cysto
    sac
  146. Origin of Terms:
    enucleate
    to remove
  147. Origin of Terms:
    iris
    rainbow, halo
  148. Origin of Terms:
    kerato
    horny, cornea
  149. Origin of Terms:
    nystagmus
    nod
  150. Origin of Terms:
    oblique
    slanting
  151. Origin of Terms:
    oculo
    eye
  152. Origin of Terms:
    phaco, phako
    lens
  153. Origin of Terms:
    vitreous
    glassy
  154. Origin of Terms:
    zonule
    tiny band
  155. Anatomic Terms:
    bulb of the eye
    also known as the eyeball
  156. Anatomic Terms:
    anterior chamber of the eye
    the chamber of the eye that is in front of the lens
  157. Anatomic Terms:
    posterior chamber
    the chamber of the eye that is behind the lens
  158. Anatomic Terms:
    cornea
    the clear part of the eye for light to go through, part of the outer layer/tunic of the eye
  159. Anatomic Terms:
    scleria
    the whites of the eye made of tough fibrous tissue; part of the outer layer/tunic of the eye
  160. Anatomic Terms:
    uvea
    the vascular part; part of the middle layer/tunic of the eye
  161. Anatomic Terms:
    iris
    the colored part of the eye; the pupil is the hole; part of the middle layer/tunic of the eye
  162. Anatomic Terms:
    lens
    focuses light to the retina; part of the middle layer/tunic of the eye
  163. Anatomic Terms:
    retina
    black, nervous tissue, absorbs light and sends signal to brain; part of the inner layer/tunic of the eye
  164. Anatomic Terms:
    orbit
    the eye socket, bone structure around the eyes

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