Lab 6 - Axial skeleton

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KellyM
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208453
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Lab 6 - Axial skeleton
Updated:
2013-03-19 23:43:07
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  1. bone markings - projections for muscle and ligament attachment

    tuberosity
    large rounded projection, may have rough surface

    ex= ischial tuberosity
  2. bone markings - projections for muscle and ligament attachment

    crest
    mostly prominent narrow ridge of bone

    ex= iliac crest
  3. bone markings - projections for muscle and ligament attachment

    trochanter
    • large, blunt, irregular shaped process
    • only found on femur
  4. bone markings - projections for muscle and ligament attachment

    line
    • narrow bone ridge
    • smaller than a crest
  5. bone markings - projections for muscle and ligament attachment

    tubercle
    small rounded projection/process

    ex= adductor tubercle
  6. bone markings - projections for muscle and ligament attachment

    epicondyle
    raised area on/above a condyle
  7. bone markings - projections for muscle and ligament attachment

    spine
    sharp, slender, pointed projection (like a thorn)
  8. bone markings - projections for muscle and ligament attachment

    process
    any bony prominence
  9. bone markings - projections that form joints

    head
    bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
  10. bone markings - projections that form joints

    facet
    smooth, nearly flat articular surface
  11. bone markings - projections that form joints

    condyle
    rounded articular projection
  12. bone markings - projections that form joints

    ramus
    arm-like bar of bone
  13. bone markings - passages for blood vessels and nerves

    groove
    furrow
  14. bone markings - passages for blood vessels and nerves

    fissure
    narrow, slit-like opening
  15. bone markings - passages for blood vessels and nerves

    foramen
    round or oval opening
  16. bone markings - passages for blood vessels and nerves

    notch
    indentation at the edge of a structure
  17. bone markings - passages for blood vessels and nerves

    meatus
    canal-like passageway
  18. bone markings - passages for blood vessels and nerves

    sinus
    cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with a mucous membrane (most noticeable when you have a bad cold or sinus infection)
  19. bone markings - passages for blood vessels and nerves

    fossa
    shallow, basin-like depression in a bone, often an articular surface
  20. true ribs
    • first 7 pairs of ribs
    • attached directly to the sternum via the costal cartilage
  21. false ribs
    • the last 5 pairs of ribs
    • either attach indirectly to the sternum or not at all
  22. floating ribs
    • the last 2 pairs of false ribs
    • do not attach to sternum at all
  23. sternum
    • breastbone composed of 3 bones fused together
    • top bone is the manubrium - has 3 notches: jugular notch at top (for jugular vein) and 2 clavicular notches (articulate with clavicle)
    • middle bone is the body
    • bottom bone is xiphoid process
  24. hyoid bone
    • U-shaped bone serves as attachment site for several muscles that help elevate the larynx during swallowing and also supports tongue.
    • is not attached to another bone -- only bone in body that does not articulate with another bone
  25. atlas
    • C1 vertebra
    • articulates with occipital condyles of the skull
    • only vertebra without a body and without a spinous process (has posterior tubercle)
  26. axis
    • C2 vertebra
    • articulates with the atlas
    • tooth-like process called the dens - projects superiorly and fits into the vertebral foramen of the atlas
  27. cervicle vertebrae
    • vertebral foramen is larger than the body
    • spinous process is short and bifid (forked)
    • transverse foramina - 2 openings in the transverse process
  28. thoracic vertebrae
    • larger than the cervical vertebrae
    • the vertebral foramen is round and body is usually heart shaped
    • they have distinctively long, slender spinous process
    • transverse process are long, thick, and strong
    • resemble elephant from side
  29. lumbar vertebrae
    • large, thick oval shaped bodies
    • vertebral foramen is small and triangular
    • spinous process is thick, broad, flat with a rounded tip.
    • resembles a moose when viewed from side
  30. sacrum
    • 5 fused vertebrae
    • large, triangular bone that articulates with the fifth lumbar vertebra
    • concave on anterior side
    • 4 pairs of sacral foramina for passage of spinal nerves.  Dorsal side of sacrum is convex
    • at top of dorsal side is the superior sacral canal - which forms the passageway or the spinal cord.  at the inferior end is the sacral hiatus, which is an opening for the exit of inferior spinal nerves.
  31. coccyx
    • tailbone
    • consists of 4-5 fused vertebra below sacrum
    • size decreases from 1st-4th
  32. 4

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