Anthropology 23: World Prehistory Final

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Anthropology 23: World Prehistory Final
2013-03-20 04:43:19
Anth antrhro anthropolgy 23 world prehistory

Anth 23 Final
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  1. Pure Hunting and Gathering
    • A lot of fishing
    • Nomadic
    • Depend on wild resources
  2. Intensified Hunting and Gathering
    • Plants animals not domesticated yet (we see no change in morphology)
    • more calorie load out of small tracks of land
    • more territoriality and warfare/social inequality
    • smaller, lower ranked foods in diet
  3. Agriculture
    • See start of domestication of plants
    • clearing, sowing, pruning, coppicing
  4. Horticulture
    • low intensity food production
    • usually shared between one or a few families
    • hand labor with own tools
    • subsistence level farming
  5. Pastoralism
    • Dependence on domesticated animals
    • go where animals need to go for their food
    • highly mobile
  6. Intensive Agriculture
    • irrigation, capture water and move it where it's needed
    • animal labor
    • metal drawn animal plow
    • diff classes of people: manage who is producing food and tell people what to do
    • manipulation of land/artificial landscapes/monumental architecture/etc
  7. Genetic engineering
    • Direct manipulation of genes
    • imposing
    • modern times
    • imposing genetic process through artificial selective process
  8. What do we mean when we say that a plant or animal has been domesticated?
    genetic makeup has been altered for human advantage. change in geography, morphology, genetics, behavior, etc. through conscious or unconcious human behavior
  9. How can we ID early evidence for domestication
    • change sin the genetic makeup
    • ex: dog buried in close proximity to humans shows a close rlationship
    • ex: donkeys (egypt) spines show used as pack animals
    • animals and plants moving outside native enviornment
    • ex: sorghum moving subsaharan africa to india
    • change in body size or age structures
    • ex: pottery shows used for horses milk in Kazakstan (3700)
  10. With plants, what changes do we see increasing manipulation and then domestication?
    • larger/sweeter seeds
    • protective husks
    • can no longer propagate on own
    • ripen faster
    • broad tolerance to diff environments/disturbances
  11. Primary Domesticated plants for each center of food production.
    • Levant: post natufian groups 98-88: emmer, einkorn, barley
    • Legumes Neolithic/Chalcolitic 68-58
    • Northern Andes: Potatoes and Tomatoes SA
    • Americas: Squash and Bottle Gourd 8000
    • Maize 4300 Beans 1000
  12. Primary Animals domesticated per region
    • Northern Africa: Aurochs 9000 BCE (like cattle)
    • West Asia/Middle East: Sheep and Goats 98088
    • Africa: Sheep and Goats 5000
    • SubSaharan AFrica-Guinea Fowl 2000
    • AFrica; 5000 Cattle
    • Levant: Pottery neolitic 68-58: Pigs and Cattle
    • Egypt: Donkeys 5000
    • Eurasia: Dogs 12kya
    • Northern Andes, SA : 3000 llams and alpacas
    • Guinea pigs 3000
    • Ducks 3000
    • NA: Turkeys from mexico 800 bce
    • Cats 9500
  13. What is first domesticated animal?
    dogs, 12 kya
  14. What traits make an animal amenable to domestication?
    • Easy breeding habits
    • herd mentality
    • ability to provide secondary products
    • no competition for food
    • dominance hierarchies that humans can take over
    • high reproductive output
  15. Why Adopt agriculture? why is it important
    • basis of all existing civiliations
    • increases productivity of land
    • conflict
    • land ownership
    • changes land use
    • inc pop potential
    • people concentrate
    • inc risk of food failure and starvation
    • environmental degradation
    • organizational complexity
    • unequal accumulation of wealth
    • inc demand for human labor
    • inc in female fertility
    • inc in disease
  16. Themes of agriculture in Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent: Semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers
    • stay in one area, take advantage of steady water supply and steady food source
    • if move: seasonally or with herds
    • smaller and lower ranked foods in diet
  17. Themes of agriculture in Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent:Emergence of Agriculture
    • process of intesification, don't want to move so work land to thier advantage
    • plants slowly modified through selective breeding
  18. Themes of agriculture in Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent:the long middle groud
    still mostly hunter gatherers, but incorporating agricultural characteristics into cultures and diets
  19. Themes of agriculture in Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent: village settlements
    • grouping!
    • 12500-9500
    • see more politicla organization
    • once they get a leader becomes chiefdom (more stratification) then once it gains power/territory/influence becomes state
  20. Themes of agriculture in Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent: architectural transitions
    • no more tents and huts
    • permanent structures
    • large pit houses with storage pits 125-95
    • leads to rectangular with burnt lime plaster 88-68
    • massive stone architecture 8000 (jericho)
    • streets/more rooms/wells 88058 Shaar Hagolan, Israel
  21. Increasing Ritual Activity
    Mother Goddess Cult (Catal Huyuk, Turkey 7400-6000)
  22. Natufian:
    • 125-95
    • semi sedentary huntergatheres
    • domesticated dogs
    • gazelle hunted
    • round pit houses
    • earliest villages in near east
    • storage
  23. PrePottery Neolithic A
    • 98-88
    • domesticated: emmer, einkorn,barley
    • domesticated: goats
    • relied on wild game
    • small villages
    • elliptical dwellings with flexed burials (in house)
  24. PrePotter Neolithic B
    • 88-68
    • stratified towns
    • earliest evidence for textiles: flax fibers
    • Knowledge of water underneath surface and how to access it: Cyprus
    • First metal working in record: Anatolia, Turkey
    • legumes, wheat, barley
    • larger sites and more of them
    • rectangular houses-burnt lime plaster
    • some people wealther than others
    • inc reliance on domesticated plants and animals
  25. Pottery Neolithic/Chalcolithic
    • Cereals, legumes, dogs, goats, sheep
    • cattle and pigs
    • pottery: store liquids
    • inc social stratification
    • clay seals with impressions: ownership and distinction
  26. 10 Characteristics of State level societies and how they interact to form complex systems:
    • Cities: Densely populated
    • Food surplus: domesticated plants and animals, new tools, irration
    • Full time specialists: farmers, priests, craftworkers
    • Social STratification
    • Decline of kin based authority: development of laws and government
    • standing army: physically impose will of leader
    • long distance trade: markets controlled by state
    • achievements: math, writing, astronomy, etc
    • distinctive art styles: developing traditions
    • monumental architecture: people in authority communicate power through development of landscape
  27. Theories of origins of complexity
    • pop pressure
    • redistribution
    • irrigation
    • warfare
    • marxist explanations
  28. How do groups transition form simple to complex
    • remove egalitarian ideals
    • convince others the position is justified: ideology, religion, material goods

    • convince people to work more than they need to: want surplus for storage to use to buy time and labor
    • create debt among people: pay back with interest
  29. Monumental architecture i a notable feature of these societies-why build it?
    • Symbol of power/economic wealth
    • religious significance/astrological
    • protection
    • marks territory
    • legitimized authority
    • centralized location
    • visible storage and redistribution centers
  30. Why writing? Describe context of earliest writing? how used?
    • Late Uruk 35-21 Mesopotamia
    • recording and storing economic info (records of trade etc)
    • cuneiform writing
    • Abydoes Egypt
  31. When do state level societies start appearing in Mesopotamia?
    • 4000 BCE because of fertile land and agricultural potential, area by Tigris and Euphrates rivers
    • (split into late uruk and early dynastic/bronze age)
  32. Late Uruk Period
    • 35-31
    • earlies twriting
    • bronze casting
    • wheel thrown potter
    • advancements in mass production/standardization of accounging, art/access to goods/storage and accumulated wealth
  33. Early Dynastic/Bronze
    • 29-20
    • small regional states
    • temples and palaces
  34. Process of spread of farming societies into Europe
    • Came from Fertile Crescent, Europe by 6500
    • natural irrigation, use natural floods/rain/floodplains
    • Dairy 4000 bce
    • intro to animal endive plow
    • rapid transition of taking food in: Skara Brae, Scotland
  35. Where did farming societies in europe come from and when?
    from fertile crescent 6500,
  36. Phases of development across Europe
    • LBK: Linear BAndkeramik 56-50
    • distinct pottery patterns, ID'd by imprints from coccal shells, long rectangluar houses lke barns
    • Chalcolithic: 4500-SE Europe Metalworking
  37. Role of metalworking?
    • GOld and copper-status symbols
    • later copper for tools then bronze then iron since stronger
  38. when did bronze and iron enter record
    • bronze 3200
    • iron 800
  39. Megaliths of Western Europe and role in development of complex neolithic societies
    • Chambered tombs: buried dead external to homes
    • menhir: single standing stone
    • stone
    • Newgrange Ireland: 450 stone slabs, aligned with stars, ritual acitvity
    • Carnac and Southern Brittany, France: 12 lines of stones, bringing together worlds
    • Stonehenge (3-1.5)
  40. Diff trajectories of origins of farming in AFrica: NA and Sub Saharan AFrica

    why diff than mesopotamia?
    • Diff plants/farming Techniquess
    • Domesticated cattle/sheep/goats came from NA to Sub Africa
    • Guinea fowl only native domesticated to Sub Africa
    • NA: tied to mesopotamia and development of egyptian states
    • Sub: uniquely developed pastoralism, iron production without copper/bornze age, bantu expansion, late rise of complexity
  41. Rise and Fall of Egyptian States:
    • Old Kindom: 27-22, pharoahs and pyramids, with decline of old kingdom/decline of central power. problem with controlling food sustenance/supply weakens phraoahs
    • Middle Kingdom: 200-1650, long dist trade, more skirmishes, arts and literature, conquest of nubia, bronze age tech, horses and chariots
    • New Kingdom Dynasties 1550-1070: states turning into empire, pharoahs/leaders buried in valley of kings
    • DECLINE: 525 BCE, break down of indigenous rulers, 2nd peak of babylon, followed by greek rule
  42. Complex socities of indus valley distinct from 2 other comparable societies how
    • Egypt and Mesopotamia
    • general decentralization (no big temple or palace in center of town)
    • ruled by economically powered people
    • strong emphasis on cleanliness and structure
  43. Role of Chavin de Huantar, Peru in development of complex societies in Andes
    • Chavin cult spread through smaller communities, encouraging exhcnage of gifts and tributes
    • importance of ritual display in andes
    • power in hands of few
    • shamanism had high level of contact: encouraged people to accept leaders of cult
    • more people, more potential for power
    • resources like this made it ideal place to settle
    • l
  44. How might Chavin de Huantar provide model for coercion systems of early complex societies/rise of chiefdoms?
    centralized with priest as ruler, ceremonial complex (circular plaza) surrounded by city/community
  45. Incan Empire (rise and fall) what distinguishes from other state level socities?
    • 1000-1572 CE
    • Quechua
    • maize basied agricultlure
    • 10 leaders/rulers
    • 7 did most expansion (son and grandson rule)
    • women marry born incans, men get beaurocratic posts
    • military expansion
  46. Expansion of human pops into Polynesia
    Rapa Nui, boating, Ag/Ritual/etc. Coast use: fishing/bead ornamentation/etc.
  47. Why do societies decline? Factors that may lead to reorganization or collapse
    • Climate Change- Greenland Norse, entered an ice age and was unable to persevere.
    • Hostile Neighbors
    • No Neighbors (or not helpful neighbors)- Easter Island, isolated, no help
    • Destruction of resources on which they rely- Easter Island (extinction of trees, over fishing, over hunting, depletion of soil)
    • Civil unrest (authority abusing power)  - Egypt and the Old Kingdom, Easter Island
    • Over-exploitation
    • erosion
    • Spread of disease / infestations that deplete resources
    • over population - Easter Island
  48. Jericho, West Bank (Israel)
    • 4 layers; PPNA, PPNB PNa, PNB
    • found : tells (mound where people reoccupied site until big heap of human habitation)
    • massive stone archtecture
    • investment in ritual burials: remvoed heads, plastered skulls
  49. Shaar Hagolan Israel
    • 68-58
    • largest known neolithic settlement
    • streents, courtyard/lots of rooms
    • high pop density/densely packed
    • clay figurines of women
  50. Catal Huyuk, Turkey
    • 74060
    • domesticated cereals and legumes
    • sheep/cattle
    • pottery and obsidian tools
    • mother goddess cult-venus figurines
    • conography: unique symbolism or religious
    • neolithic town and one of earliest urban settlement sknown
    • farmers and pastoralists
  51. Uruk, Iraq
    33-29, first real city, earliest writing for recording economic info
  52. Ur, Irz
    • 2110, 3 tiered
    • ziggurat (temple/palace stamped with kigns names)
    • 16 royal tombs, included all people with them
    • skull fracturing-human sacrifice in tombs
  53. Babylon, Iraq
    • peaked 1792
    • Law code of Hammurabi
    • short lived, peaked second time 604
  54. Franchthi Cave, Greece
    • 6500 early settlement
    • earliest evidence for domesticating sheep and goats as well as non native fertile crescent plants
  55. Nea Nikomedeia, Greece
    • 6000-5000
    • neolithic cultures being integrated into europe
    • fertile points on landscape so persisting there
    • tells, venus figurines (shaar hagulan influence)
  56. Varna, Bulgaria
    • 4560-4450
    • chacolithic tech
    • biggest show of goldworking in world
    • status marker/social differentiation
    • gold is dominanat
    • one of earliest examples of metalworing
    • copper soft, better for ornamentation than tools
  57. Skara Brae, UK
    • 3100-2500
    • 8 houses with passages in between all of stone
    • housed less than 50
    • wheat/barley/sheep /cows
  58. Otzi find: Italy
    • 3300 BCE
    • oldes body found with everyday items
    • not burial/sacrifice, gives new view of chalcolithic/late neolithic peoples
    • alps at austrian/italian border
    • intestinal parasites
    • guts indicated died in spring
  59. Newgrange, Ireland
    • 3100
    • large circular mound, stone passageways/chambers
    • religious: aligned with rising sun and winter solstice
  60. Abydos, Egypt
    • Origins of First dynasty, king Scorpian first king/phraroah.
    • Oldes writing in Egypt 3300
  61. Giza Pyramids, Egypt
    3 successive Pharoahs. largest: complex corridors. example of site never lost/still on landscape 27-2200
  62. Meroe, Sudan
    600-350, lots of raw materials for ironworking
  63. Great Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
    1220, climatic change: better for ag/cattle (tsetse fly doesnt live at higher elevations)
  64. Mesa Verde, Colorado
    1150=1300, aka Cliff Canyon, defensible location. dendrochronology technique for climatic reconstructions
  65. Chaco Canyon, IL
    • 1050-1200
    • kivas/great houses with roomas round common area
    • round in ground pueblo style houses
    • monk's mound: largest earthwork in NA
    • status diffs in burials
    • tratified society with ruling elite
    • no oral history by time europeans arrived
    • decline due to climate and conflict
  66. Chavin de Huantar, Peru
    • 1000 bce, new religious cult with rise of chiefdom
    • human/animalisc faces, left to right ransform into animal faces, drugs?
    • artwork with animals not around andes (link to amazonian)
    • lazon-fanged god, most ancient cult statue in original setting
  67. Cuzco, Peru
    • capital of incan empire
    • complex water/sewage
  68. Machu Picchu, Peru
    • 1438-1471
    • terracing, irrigation
    • high elevation/protection from spanish
  69. Lapita, New Calcedonia
    • low fired earthenware pottery
    • horticulture: root and tree crop based
  70. Rapa Nui, Easter Island, Chile
    • Polynesians
    • 400 CE
    • stone heads
    • overpopulation, environmental degredation