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Where is simple epithelium found?
In areas where you need transport across membrane rapidly & in a protected area
Simple Squamous Epithelium
- Lining of lungs
- were we have diffusion gradient
Simple Squamous E. lining in body cavity
- Lining in blood vessels &
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Tubules of kidneys
Simple Columnar Epithelium
- Found in SCE
- increase surface and facilitates absorbtion
- Found in Respiratory System in SCE
- Moves mucous out of system
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Pseodostratified Columnar Epithelium
- Nasal Mucosa
- Lining upper respiratory tract
- lining large excretory ducts of large glands
- Lining ducts of male reproductive system
how to recognize it:
- Transions from Stratified S.E. to Columnar
- Basal layer cells are cuboidal &
- Columnar shaped
- Superficial layer of cell round
- 2 Nuclei
- Stretches and becomes thinner
- 1st - Striations (Contractive proteins)
- 2nd - Multinucleate ** many**
- --pushed against outer membran of cell
- 3rd - Tube like cells w. parallel membranes
Myoblast fused together to form a muscle cell
- Myosatellite- dont fused
- Stay to repair damage in skeletal cells
Smooth Muscle (visceral muscle)
- 1st - No Striations
- 2nd - ONE central nucleus per cell
- 3rd - Has tapered ends
- -blood vessels
- -Urinary bladder
- -Entire digestive tract
- 1st - Faint Striations
- 2nd - Single, centrally located nucleus per cell
- 3rd - Cell Branch
- 4th - Intercalated Discs
- Structures strings that connect adjacent cells during contrations
- prevent from pulling apart
A graph which represents the physical movement made by the skeletal muscle when stimulated.
is required to initiate contraction of the cell.
Subthreshold Stimulus (subliminal stimulus)
if cell is stimulated at any level below the threshold level.
CEll does not respond
Threshold Stimulus ( Liminal stimulus)
Cell has been stimulated to at any level equal or above threshold level
each consist of a nerve, which supplies on or more skeletal muscle fibers
a quick jerky contraction in response to a single stimulus
The time while the muscle sits there after stimulus has occurred.
The period while the muscle responds to the stimulus by shortening and thickening
The time period while muscle returns to its original size and shape
is created by applying a series of electrical stimuli to the gastrocnemium muscle.
voltage is increased by each successive stimulus
- is Created by applying a series of electrical stimuli to the gastrocnemius muscle
- Stimulus are equal strength
is a reflection of the strength of the muslce
Length tension relationship
- Same voltage, equal strength and is high enough to reach threshold level of all motor units.
- Increasing length of muscle, increases the tension w/in the muscle and the muscle responds with a more forceful contration
- created by applying a serious of equal strength stimuli to the muscle.
- partially relaxes between each contraction
Fused Tetany ans summation
- created by applying a series of equal strength stimuli to muscle. Rate 35-50 stimuli/second
- No relaxation/same voltage
certain sensitive spots that elicit a much greater response
Flexor digitorum superficialis
located on the anterior surface of the forearm and
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