Alcamo's Ch 6

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Alcamo's Ch 6
2013-03-26 14:34:21
BI 301

Alcamo's Microbiology Ch 6
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  1. What is the term that refers to all biochemical reactions taking place in an organism?
  2. Anabolism does what?
    Builds larger organic compounds (carbs & proteins) fr simpler monomers
  3. ___ hydrolyzes polymers into simpler molecules.
  4. Anabolic reactions form bonds which require energy.  Energy-requiring processes are known as ____.
  5. Catabolic reactions break bonds releasing energy making the ____ reactions. 
  6. ___ are proteins that increase probability of chemical reactions while themselves remaining unchanged.
  7. What are 4 important characteristics of enzymes?
    • Reusable 
    • Highly specific
    • Have an active site
    • Required in minute amts
  8. What is meant by enzymes are reusable?
    Once a reaction has occurred, enzyme is released to participate in another reaction
  9. An enzyme that functions in 1 type of reaction will not usually participate in another making enzymes what?
    Highly Specific
  10. Each enzyme has an ____ ____ which is a pocket or cleft where a reaction takes place.
    Active site
  11. When a ___ binds to an enzyme's ___ ___ a chem reaction occurs to form one or more ____.
    • Substrate 
    • Active site
    • Products
  12. Why are enzymes only required in minute amts?
    B/c they can be used thousands of time to catalyze the same reaction
  13. The 3-D shape of an enzymes active site recognizes & holds a substrate in a what?
    Enzyme-substrate complex
  14. What happens to the substrate in an enzyme during hydrolysis? 
    Chem bonds are stretched or weakened causing them to break
  15. In a synthesis reaction, what occurs at the enzyme-substrate complex?
    Electron shells of substrates are forced to overlap where chem bond will form
  16. What is activation energy and how do enzymes effect it?
    • Energy needed to start a reaction.
    • Enzyme lower it
  17. The enzyme in human tears & saliva the hydrolyzes the bond between NAG & NAM in cell walls of Gram-pos bacterial cells is called ____.
  18. What are cofactors?
    Small, nonprotein substances that participate in catalytic reactions
  19. A small nonprotein organic molecule is referred to as a ____.  2 important ones are ___ & ___. 
    • Coenzymes
    • NAD⁺ & FAD
  20. What is the term given to a sequence of chem reactions where each reaction is catalyzed by a different enzyme & the product of one reaction is the substrate for the next.
    Metabolic pathway
  21. The products of reactions within a metabolic pathway are known as ____.
  22. Metabolic pathways can be which of the following?
    Catabolic or anabolic
  23. Why does temperature have an effect on an enzyme's action?
    B/c enzymes are proteins and higher temps denature proteins
  24. What are 3 ways we can inhibit the activity of enzymes?
    • Increase temp
    • Decrease pH
    • Apply chemicals such as alcohols or phenols
  25. How does pathway modulation inhibit an enzyme?
    Competitive or noncompetitive inhibition
  26. Explain noncompetitive inhibition of an enzyme.
    Final end product of a pathway binds to a nonactive site altering the shape of the active site so the substrate can no longer bind
  27. Enzyme inhibition that is caused by blocking the active site so a substrate can not bind is known as what?
  28. What compound is known as cellular energy currency?
  29. ATP os formed on the __ __ of bacterial & archaeal cells and in the ____ in eukaryotes.
    • Cell membrane
    • mitochondria
  30. T or F; ATP molecules cannot be stored.
  31. What are 3 characteristics that make ATP unstable?
    • 3 phosphate grps have neg charge on O₂ atom
    • Like charges repel
    • Phos grps packed tightly together repelling each other
  32. What is the result of breaking high energy bonds in ATP?
    ADP + a phosphate grp
  33. How much ATP does a typical bacterial cell require to satisfy its energy needs?
    3 million ATP/sec
  34. If we add a phosphate grp to a molecule we accomplish a process known as ___.
  35. The molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams in known as a what?
  36. Define a calorie.
    Amt of heat required to raise 1g of H₂O  1⁰C
  37. A mole of glucose contains about ____ calories of energy.
  38. Virtually all cells make ATP by harvesting energy fr exergonic metabolic pathways in a process known as ___ ___.
    Cellular Respiration
  39. If cells consume oxygen making ATP then they  practice ____ respiration.
  40. The process of making ATP w/o the presence of oxygen is known as ___ respiration
  41. What is the chem equation for aerobic resp in obligate aerobes.
    C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6 O₂ + 38 ADP + 38 P → 6 CO₂ + 6 H₂O + 38 ATP
  42. What are the 3 stages of cellular respiration?
    • Glycolysis
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation 
  43. T or F: Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen.
  44. In the first part of glycolysis 2 ATP are ___ & in the 2nd part 4 ATP are ___.
    • Hydrolyzed
    • Synthsized 
  45. What is the net gain of glycolysis?
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NADH + H⁺
    • 2 pyruvate molecules
  46. The formation of ATP resulting fr the transfer of phosphate fr substrate to ADP is known as what?
    Substrate Level Phosphorylation 
  47. What happens when a substance is reduced?
    It goes through a process of gaining e⁻ prs
  48. Why is the citric acid cycle called a cycle?
    B/c the end product formed is used as 1 substrate to initiate the pathway
  49. All reactions on the citric acid cycle are ___ by ___.
    Catalyzed by enzymes
  50. What is the pyruvate molecule's purpose in the citric acid cycle?
    It starts the cycle going around again
  51. The process of removing e⁻ prs fr a substance is known as ___.
  52. Before pyruvate enters the Kreb's cycle, what happens to it?
    Enzyme oxidizes a C atom fr each pyruvate molecule & releases them as CO₂ molecules
  53. At the beginning of the Kreb's Cycle ____ atoms of pyruvate combine w/coenzyme A to form ___ __.
    • 2 C atoms
    • Acetyl CoA
  54. What happens to the last e⁻ fr pyruvate at the beginning of the Krebs cycle?
    They are transferred along w/2 p⁺ to NAD⁺ to form NADH
  55. For each molecule of C₆H₁₂O₆ what is produced by the Krebs cycle?
    • 6 NADH + H⁺
    • 2 FADH₂
    • 2 ATP
    • 4 CO₂
  56. Out fr the Krebs cycle, what enters the ETC?
    • NADH + H⁺
    • FADH₂
  57. Where does oxidative phosphorylation take place?
    Cell membrane
  58. What are the reactants for oxidative phosphorylation?
    • NADH
    • FADH
    • O₂
  59. What are the products of oxidative phosphorylation?
    • 34 ATP
    • H₂O
  60. What 3 pathways are aerobic?
    • Glycolysis
    • CAC
    • Oxidative phosphorylation
  61. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs during  ___ respiration.
    anaerobic & aerobic
    Anaerobic & Aerobic
  62. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs where?
    Electron Transport Chain
  63. What are the products of anaerobic oxidative phosphorylation?
    ATP, Nitrate, H₂S, Methane
  64. Name 4 bacteria where fermentation takes place.
    • Lactobacillus
    • acidophylus
    • Streptococcus
    • Thermophylus 
  65. What are the 2 pathways involved with fermentation?
    • Glycolysis
    • Fermentation pathway
  66. Where do the pathways in fermentation take place?
    In the cytosol
  67. What are the reactants for the fermentation pathway?
    • 2 pyruvate
    • NAD
  68. What are the products of the fermentation pathway?
    • 2 ATP 
    • NADH
  69. What are the 2 reactions in photosnthesis? 
    • Energy fixing (light) reactions
    • Carbon fixing reactions (Calvin cycle)
  70. The energy fixing reactions of photosynthesis take place in the ___ ___ where as the Calvin cycle goes on in the ___.
    • Thylakoid membranes
    • Cytosol
  71. The reactants for the energy fixing reactions are ___, ___ ___ & ___.
    • Light
    • Chlorophyll pigments 
    • Water
  72. The products of the energy fixing or light reactions are ___ & ___.
    • O₂
    • ATP
  73. What are the 4 reactants of the Calvin cycle?
    • CO₂
    • Rubisco (RuBP)
    • NADP
    • G3P
  74. What are the products of the Calvin cycle?
    • NADPH
    • Glucose
    • RuBP
  75. Glycolysis is the splitting of 1 ___ into 2 ___ molecules.
    • Glucose 
    • Pyruvate
  76. B/f entering the Kreb's cycle enzymes do what?
    • Remove a C fr each pyruvate molecule
    • Combine the carbon with coenzyme A (CoA) to form acetyl-CoA
  77. The Krebs cycle is like a constantly turning wheel doing what?
    • Picking up pyruvate molecules from glycolysis
    • Spitting out carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH, and FADH2
  78. The ETC is composed of electron carriers called ___ which are made of ___.
    • Cytochromes
    • Proteins
  79. ___ accepts the electron pr at the end of the chain, acquires 2 protons & becomes ___.
    • Oxygen
    • Water
  80. As the electrons move down the chain they use ___, which is harnessed to ___ ___ out of the cell in a process called ___.
    • Energy
    • Pump Protons
    • Chemiosmosis
  81. Protons outside the membrane of the ETC create a ___ ___.
    Concentration Gradient
  82. ATP synthase harnesses the energy fr the flowing protons to what?
    Phosphorylate ADP into ATP
  83. __ __ are those compounds that provide high energy electrons.  3 examples are ___, ___ & ___.
    • Electron Donors
    • Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
  84. Compounds that accept low energy electrons, after their energy has been used are called what?
    Electron acceptors
  85. What is the electron donor in aerobic, anaerobic & fermentation pathways?
    Organic compounds
  86. The electron acceptors in aerobic pathways is what?
  87. What are the electron acceptors in anaerobic pathways?
    • NO₃⁻¹
    • SO₄⁻²
    • CO₂
  88. What is the product of aerobic pathways?
  89. What are the products of anaerobic pathways?
    • NH₃
    • H₂S
    • CH₄
  90. Organic compounds used as electrons donors include what compounds?
    • Sugars
    • Proteins
    • Fats
  91. Reactions in cyanobacteria utilize which chlorophyll?
    Chlorophyll a
  92. Reactions in sulfur bacteria utilize which chlorophyll? 
    Bacteriochlorophyll a & b
  93. Reactions in archaebacteria utilize which chlorophyll?
  94. Photosynthesis in eukaryotes utilize which types of chlorophyll?
    Chlorophyll a & b
  95. Organisms that are autotrophs ___ their own food & use what as their carbon source?
    • Synthesize 
    • Carbon dioxide
  96. Organisms that are heterotrophs obtain ___ food taking in preformed ___ ___.
    • Preformed 
    • Organic Compounds
  97. What are 3 types of heterotrophs?
    • Saprobes
    • Parasites
    • Pathogens
  98. Where do saprobes get organic nutrients from?
    Non-living sources (dead things)
  99. Parasites obtain nutrients from ___ ___.
    Living organisms
  100. Pathogens are ___-___ organisms.
  101. In anaerobic resp, anaerobes use molecules ___ ___ ___ as the final electron receptor in the ETC.
    Other than oxygen
  102. T or F: Anaerobic resp produces less ATP than aerobic resp.
  103. Fermentation is used when ___ & other ___ ___ ___ are unavailable.
    • Oxygen
    • Alternative electron acceptors
  104. What gets converted to lactic acid to reform NAD+ coenzymes so glycolysis can produce ATP fr glucose?
  105. What is an example of eukaryotes performing fermentation?
    Yeast used to ferment alcoholic beverages
  106. In photosynthesis, ___ energy is converted to ___ energy to be stored as an organic compound.
    • Light 
    • Chemical
  107. Photosynthesis in prokaryotes is carried out in the ___ ___ & in eukaryotes in organelles called ___.
    • Cell membrane 
    • Chloroplasts
  108. What is it in chlorophyll a that absorbs light energy?
    Green pigment