Card Set Information
chem 360 pharmacology
Non-polar drugs are transported inn the blood bound to:
An enzyme family which adds OH groups to drugs:
Enzyme which adds sugar molecules to drugs:
Glucoronic acid works on ________, a metabolite product of heme.
Heroin is a schedule ___ drug.
A molecule which increases the risk of birth defects is called a:
NH2 group are called:
NH3+ groups are called:
Amine groups can be converted into ammonium ion groups by the addition of:
Which drug form passes the blood brain barrier easier?
Which drug form is sometimes referred to as free base?
Which drug form is present in morphine sulfate?
Benzocaine has a pka=2.5. Which form will be present at physiological pH (7.4)?
Type of receptor at sympathetic ganglion?
Neurotransmitter at the sympathetic ganglion:
Action of acetylcholine is terminated by:
Sympathetic neurotransmitter released by adrenal gland:
Epinephrine is terminated by:
The safety of a drug is measured by a number called the ____ _____ which is equal to ______.
lethal dose/effective dose for half the population
If a drug has a TI=3, is is relatively (safe/unsafe).
Drug used to decrease saliva and GI motility before an operation:
Atropine can cause (increased/decreased) heart rate.
______ is a drug for COPD that contains 2 drugs, _____ which acts as an adrenergic agonist and _______, an anticholinergic.
Drug of choice for tx anaphylactic shock:
Common adrenergic drug for rescuing an asthma attack:
Albuterol works as an ____ of _____ receptors.
Common long-acting adrenergic asthma med, _______, is not useful for asthma attacks because ______.
Primary steroid for treating asthma:
______ contains Flovent combined with _____ and is most commonly administered with a _ _ _.
dry powder inhaler
Terbutaline is used to the treatment of ______.
BPH is commonly treated with the drug:
Montelukast (Singulair) is a drug used to inhibit the formation of inflammatory _______ molecules and is commonly used in the treatment of asthma.
General name for adrenergic drugs which cannot be taken orally:
A schedule II drug other than methylphenidate (Ritalin) used to treat ADHD:
Two common antihypertensive drugs, ______ and ______ slow heart rate by acting as (agonist/antagonists) of the ___ receptors.
Parkinson's disease occurs when there is a relative lack of ______ in the ______ of the brain.
Parkinson's is commonly treated with a combination which contains _____ and _____, the latter of which inhibits the enzyme ________.
Second common drug for treating Parkinson's is ______ which inhibits the enzyme ________.
type B monamine oxidase
Type of diet used to tx seizures:
Common anti seizure medication with numerous bad side-effects such as gingival hyperplasia, sedation, and blurred speech:
If tonic-clinic seizures last longer than 20 min the condition is called ____ _____ and a drug of choice for treating this is _____.
Anti-seizure medication that commonly causes GI upset and nausea but has shown efficacy for all seizure types:
Commonly prescribed anti-seizure drug that is more commonly prescribed for off label uses such as neuralgic pain:
New improved version of gabapentin which has official FDA approval for treating neuralgic pain is still under patent:
Inorganic drug for bipolar disorder:
Several drugs in _____ and ______ families have also been approved for bipolar disorder.
Biochemically, schizophrenia may be due to ____ levels of _____ in the _____ region of the brain.
Hallucinations are an example of _____ symptoms of schizophrenia.
An older ant-psychotic still occasionally used as a sedative:
Older anti-psychotic drugs often produce symptoms similar to Parkinson's called _____.
Two atypical antipsychotics ______ and ______, claim to be more effective than older antipsychotics in treating the ________ symptoms of psychosis.
Common adverse effect of atypical antipsychotics:
Two common older antiemetics other than Benadryl and THC:
Newer antiemetic that is more effective at treating pain associated with chemotherapy:
Depression may be due to (high/low) levels of the neurotransmitters:
One member of the TCA antidepressant family:
TCA stands for ____ ____ ____
Prozac is the original member of the family:
SSRIs, selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors
Two newer SSRIs:
SARI used for sedation and was used on Mr. Brown in ODA:
SNRI that causes serious withdrawal problems:
SNRI that has FDA approval for treating neuralgic pain:
NDRI antidepressant _____ is advertised as causing minimal sexual dysfunction. It also approved for treating _____.
Major family of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs:
Benzodiazepines potentiates the effect of the natural CNS depressant ____ _____ ____ which works by causing (increase/decrease) of ___ ions inside the nerve cell.
gamma aminobutyric acid
Most commonly prescribed benzo that cause American express card syndrome:
Benzo for alcoholic withdrawals:
Benzo used to induce amnesia for sx procedures:
Two common diuretics and part of nephron they act on:
furosemide, ascending loop of Henle
hydrochlorothiazide, early distal convoluted tubule
Low blood level of ___ ion, called _____, is a common adverse effect of diuretics and a common symptom of this is _____
Two diuretics which prevent hypokalemia, _____ and _____, work on the _________ portion of the nephron.
late distal convoluted tubule
Two common specific ACE inhibitors:
ARB or ARA stads for:
angiotensin II receptor antagonist
One example of an ARB:
ARBs advantage over ACE inhibitors:
Calcium channel blocker that only works on blood vessels:
CCB that also works on the heart:
Advertisements for CCB suggest they are more efficacious in _____ than other HTNs.
Anti HTN that has persistent dry cough as adverse effect:
Anti HTN that has edema as a common adverse effect:
Anti HTN that is teratogenic:
ACE inhibitors and ARBs
______ is commonly prescribed for angina and is put under the tongue of cheeked rather than swallowed because of the ____ ____ effect.
Two drugs used for prevention of anginal attacks:
Long term use of angina drugs has dropped in the last decade because of an increase in ___ procedures.
Nitroglycerin and Viagra are both metabolized to produce the potent vasodilator:
Family of drugs whose generic names frequently end in -pril:
Family of drugs that frequently end in -sartan:
protein pump inhibitors
Common drug isolated from foxglove leave for tx of CHF:
Digoxin causes (increased/decreased) heart rate and (increased/decreased) contraction intensity which is referred to as a positive _____ effect.
Digoxin can cause heart block, especially when combined with the _____ family of drugs.
Anticoagulant that inhibits vitamin K synthesis:
Anticoagulant originally used as rat poinson:
Anticoagulant whose effect is immediate:
Anticoagulant with more reproducible activity than usual IV drug:
Expensive platelet aggregation inhibitor:
A patient on the anticoagulant ________ should have an INR measured on a regular basis. A pt with an INR = 1.2 is in danger of ______.
INR stand for:
International normalized ratio
Drug under patent commonly used to inhibit platelet aggregation:
Full generic name for one thrombolytic drug _____ _____ ____ and is abbreviated as ___. The most critical factor determining the efficacy of this drug is the _____. The most common adverse effect is:
tissue plasminogen activator
the time it is administered
The _____ family of drugs inhibits the first enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis.
Name 2 common drugs in the statin family:
Drug which inhibits absorption of dietary cholesterol _____, it's use is questioned because:
doesn't reduce heart attack (surrogate outcome)
Vitamin which lowers serum cholesterol when given in megadoses:
NSAID stands for:
non-steroidal antinflammatory drug
OTC NSAID with 8 hr half life: naproxen
Common adverse effect of all OTC NSAIDs _____ is due to the fact they inhibit both forms of the enzyme:
OTC NSAID associated w/ Reyes syndrome:
OTC analgesic and antipyretic which not an anti-inflammatory:
RX NSAID whose use is limited to 5 days:
NSAID often used to tx gout:
Anti-inflammatory drug _____ is given by injection for RA and other autoimmune diseases.
Long term blood glucose control is best measured by a quantity _______ that is abbreviated ____. A normal value for non-diabetics is ____%.
Name brand for regular insulin:
Type of insulin that acts faster than regular:
Common intermediate type of insulin:
Long acting once-a-day form of insulin:
Diabetics should not give themselves insulin shots in the same location in order to avoid:
The oldest family of oral diabetic drugs _______ act as a molecular level by increasing insulin secretion and can cause _____.
glipizide or glyburide
Oral diabetic drug _____ has recently been pulled off the market due to increased risk of _______. A second drug in the same family still deemed to be safe ______.
A common oral diabetic drug regarded as a first line drug which is still regarded as safe:
Oral diabetics work on a molecular level by:
increasing insulin receptor sensitivity
Analgesic opioid with doubtful efficacy:
Potent synthetic opiate available as a patch:
Most dangerous effect of opiate OD:
Additional easily checked clinical sign of opiate OD:
Opiate OD can be tx with:
Codeine is virtually always rx combined with either _______ or _____.
_____ is an opiate originally developed as an oral alternative to heroin addicts and is now commonly used to tx pain.
A device that allows a hospital patient to control their own IV dosage or morphine:
Patient controlled analgesia
Two opiates _____ and _____ are ineffective in 7% of the population because these people lack ______.
enzyme CYP 2D6
Synthetic opiate used to control diarrhea:
Common dental local anesthetic:
Topical local anesthetic that is also used in solarcaine:
Cocaine is a schedule ___ drug.
Cimetidine (Tagamet) was the first member of the ________ family of drugs treating ulcers but has largely been replaced by drugs in the same family such as _____ and ____.
Full medical name for heartburn:
gastro-esophageal reflux disease
Drug family that is even more effective in stopping gastric HCl secretion then the Tagamet family:
Proton Pump Inhibitor
_____ is the pure "right hand glove" form of the ulcer _____ which has recently gone OTC.
The bacteria responsible for causing many non-NSAID related ulcers is:
Oral use of broad spectrum can produce superinfection from a resistant bacteria such as _____ ________ when can produce the fatal condition ______ ______.
Penicillin drugs work at a molecular level by inhibiting the enzyme _______ which synthesizes _____ molecules in the cell wall.
Bacteria can become resistant to penicillins by acquiring the enzyme called _____ or _____ which destroys penicillin.
The most common penicillin drug ______ can be combined with _____ ______ which inhibits beta lactamase.
Common adverse effect of penicillin family:
MRSA stands for:
methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
Antibiotic family similar to penicillins that work on gram negative bacteria:
Cephalosporin used for gonorrhea:
IV drug used as last resort for bacteria resistant to most common antibiotics:
Antibiotic which should not be given to children under 8:
Relative of erythromycin that only needs a 5 day regimen:
_____ is a common alternative drug to penicillin the drug of choice for Lyme's disease but can cause photosensitivity.
Newer tetracycline that has a longer half life:
Sulfamethoxazole is a member of the _______ antibiotic family and is usually given in combo with trimethoprim because ______ It inhibits the synthesis of _____ which bacteria need to make DNA.
it decreases resistance
An oral broad spectrum drug which inhibits bacterial DNA replication DNA gyrase _____. It is a second choice drug for treatment of gonorrhea.